EARLY HISTORY OF TELANGANA
- History of Telangana is very old and goes back to stone age (3,00,000 BC – 5000 BC )
- The Stone Age is divided into 3 periods
3,00,000 BC – 50,000 BC : Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)
- Began when hominins first made tools.
- Paleolithic people lived in temporary shelters like tents or caves because they were nomads.
- Early Stone Age tools were found in various places in Telangana.
- Stone tools of this period are of the core type, made by chipping of stone to form a cutting edge, or the flake type, made from fragments struck of stones.
- Hand axes were the typical tools of these early hunters and food gathers
50,000 BC – 25,000 BC : Mesolithic Age (Middle Stone Age)
- Hunting and food gathering is the main occupation.
- Early men of Mesolithic age made fire by rubbing sticks together, known as Arani in sanskrit.
- Quartzite, flint, crystal. agate, chalesdon and jasper types of rocks and stones were used to make implements during this period
25,000 BC – 2200 BC : Neolithic (New Stone Age)
- Began when humans invented agriculture
- People learned how to farm and domesticate animals and are not nomadic
- A lot of Neolithic people began to live in the fertile crescent
- Out of the material remains of the Neolithic people, which survived the ravages of time, was the stone-axe, made out of igneous or metamorphic; rocks, such as diorite, dolerite and basalt, The other less common varieties are small tools either hafted or used as adzes, small chisels, picks, fabricators, hammer-stones and sling stones, etc
- Rock paintings found in Telangana reveal the love humans had for art and nature as long ago as 10,000 BCE.
- These paintings also reveal that a plethora of wild animals existed across the length and breadth of the state once upon a time.
- An interesting rock painting is that of a giraffe at Pandavulagutta in Warangal, as in the present world giraffes are found only in Africa.
- One can get a glimpse into the prehistoric man’s mind by looking at rock art which exists on walls and ceilings of caves, rock shelters and isolated boulders.
- Below are some of Neolithic sites excavated in Telangana
- Nalgonga : Thogarrai, Karimnagar : Kadambapur, Budigapalli. Warangal : Decerappula,Polakonda
2200 BC – 700 BC : Megalithic (Iron or Metal Age)
- Iron was used by the megalithic people to meet domestic, warfare and agricultural needs.
- Iron Age may have come into existence in Telangana much before the rest of the world.
- At least that’s the conclusion reached by archaeologists excavating the University of Hyderabad campus who found iron artifacts dating back to roughly 2,200 BC.
- A megalith is a large, often undressed stone, most megalithic monuments consist of a number of stones, which are fitted together without the use of mortar or cement.
- Megaliths are a special class of Monuments in Deccan particularly in Telangana State.
- Almost all types of megalithic monuments like menhirs, stone circles, dolmens and dolmonoid cists are reported in hundreds of villages in all Telangana Districts.
- Discovery of cruciform monoliths in male and female forms known as Statue-Menhirs on the Mallugrugutta (Warangal) Galabha, Kachanapally (Khammam) is a unique feature in the megalithic culture of the mid-Godavari valley.
- The Megalithic monuments located in Telangana are usually dated anywhere between 1000 B.C and 200 A.D.
- At Pullur Banda village, Siddipet Mandal, Medak district, there are nearly 50 Megalithic burials located. These are classified into three types viz., Menhir, Cairns and Dolmens
700 BC – 300 BC : Janapadas
- The Janapadas were the realms, republics and kingdoms of the Indian Vedic period the (Iron Age) from about 1200 BCE.
- Concluding with the rise of sixteen Mahajanapadas (“great janapadas”), most of the states were later annexed by more powerful neighbours, whilst others remained independent
Asmaka (One of the 16 Mahajanapadas)
Founder : Unknown (Believed to be Asmaka)
Capitals : Potana or Potali or Paudanya of Mahabharata or Bodhan.
Languages : Prakrit
Religion : Budhism, Jainism, Hinduism
- “Assaka” (Prakrit) or “Asmaka” (Sanskrit) signifies “stony region” and was located in the Deccan region
- Modern day Bodhan (Nizamabad) is believed to be the capital of Assaka Janapada
- The reference to Asmaka Janapada, part of present Telangana, as one of the 16 Janapadas in ancient India proves that there existed an advanced stage of society
- Andhakarattam : Ruled regions of Karimnagar and Warangal
- Buddhist text Suthanipatha stated that a region called Andhakarattam was located on the shores of river Godavari.
Sahara / Sebaka Kingdom
Capital : Dhulikatta (Karimnagar)
- People called the Sahara race lived in the region between the Andhakarattam and Kalinga kingdom.
- They had a separate state even from the period of Ramayana
- They continued living at the river Valley region of Sabari (in the North Andhra region of today) during 6th century B.C
- This region is also considered as a kingdom in the Andhradesa but it was called as ‘Sebaka state / kingdom’
- Scholars say that Peddabankur and Dhulikatta were a part of this kingdom and that their capital was Dhulikatta
- An ancient fort and many mints were found in the excavations conducted at Dhulikatta
- Coins with letters – ‘Raja seelakasa’ in Brahmi script (of 3rd century B.C.) were also found there.
- The meaning of that was the coins were issued by king Silakasa
- He was considered as a Sebaka king belonging to the Sahara race
- A number of other coins were also found in the region.
- So it can be concluded that Sebaka State was one of the ancient kingdoms of Andhradesa.
- This was also conquered by Satavahanas
Regions of Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar
- At the South of Sebaka kingdom was located a region called the Mahishamandala
- This kingdom was mentioned in both Itihasas and Puranas
- The Arthasastra of Kautilya says that , Mahishamandala was famous for textile industry.
- Simhala text ‘Mahavamsam’ also mentioned Mahishmati kingdom.
- Historians thought that this state was located at today’s Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar districts region.
- This was a famous kingdom by 4th century B.C. itself
- Asmaka was annexed into Magadha by Mahapadma Nanda (345 – 329 BC)
- Recieved the title of “Destroyer of Kshatriyas” when he founded the Nanda Dynasty
302 BC – 298 BC :
- Megasthenes (Greek ethnographer and explorer) Visited India around 300 BC as an Ambassador of Seleucus I of Syria to Pataliputra capital of Mauryan Empire, wrote that a powerful race called Andarae controlling countless villages and 30 well-built fortified towns.
- Much gold is found in their country
300 BC : Bindusura (298 BC – 272 BC)
- Son of Chandragupta (320 – 298) of Mauryan Empire conquered territory in vast deccan plateau of peninsular India (the modern states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh)
c.300 BC – 232 BC : Mauryan Empire (322 BC –185 BC)
Founder : Chandragupta Maurya (320 BC – 298 BC)
Capital : Pataliputra
Languages : Prakrit
Religion : Budhism, Jainism, Brahmanism
- Came to power by overthrowing the Nanda Dynasty in 322 BC.
- One of the first five disciples of the Buddha, Kondanna is a typical name from Telangana and though there is no exact information about his native place, the earliest known Buddhist township of Kondapur in Medak district is believed to be after him.
- The Buddha himself famously acknowledged that it was Kondanna who understood him properly.
- The Buddhist sources say that Bavari, a Brahmin from Badanakurti in Karimnagar sent his disciples to all the way to north India to learn Buddhism and spread the message in this region
c. 232 BC – c.220 AD : Pre-Satavahana and Satavahana Dynasty
- Excavations in kotilingala found punch marked coins of Pre Satavahana rulers Gobhada, Siri Kamvaya, Vayasiri and Samagopa.
Founder : Simuka
Languages : Prakrit, Sanskrit, Telugu
Religion : Budhism, Jainism, Hinduism
Ruled regions of Khammam, Nalgonda and Mahabunagar
Declared independence after fall of Mauryan empire.
- When studies were conducted on the rulers of Nelakondapally, Khammam district, and some regions of Karnataka, the name of a dynasty called ‘Maharathi’ was revealed.
- Ashoka’s stone inscriptions called them as ‘Rathikas’.
- Historians opined that they were kings of subordinate kingdoms at different regions during the Mauryan rule.
- They declared independence after the fall of Mauryan empire in Telangana and Karnataka regions.
- They ruled some regions of Telangana and Karnataka until 100-150 A.D
- Satavahanas, whether they are related to them or not is not known
- But the discovery of their coins indicates that they had their kingdom in the Karimnagar district region.
- As a coin with the name ‘Satavahana’ was found in Kondapur, their kingdom must have been located in Nizamabad and Medak region
- The Maharathis of the Maurya Satavahana interlude were virtually independent rulers, whereas those under the Satavahanas were essentially feudatories
- The titles known from numismatic evidence include Maharathi, Mahabhoja, Mahagamika, Mahasenapati, Mahatalawara, Gamikumara
- The Maharathi coins of Kondapur can be broadly classified as lion type and elephant type.
- Satavahanas ruled at Nizamabad and Adilabad regions at the same time
- That means that the first Satavahanas controlled only the North Telangana
- Their kingdom had extended more into to Maharashtra, Vidarbha and West Karnataka regions
- This situation continued until the period of Gautamiputra Satakami
- Gautamiputra Satakami attacked and conquered these kingdoms.
- Then, his son Pulomavi had became the ruler of Telangana and Andhra region, and made Dhanyakataka his capital
- Inscription and Coins reveals the history
- The discovery of the coins of Simukha at Kotilingala strengthens the claim of Telangana as the original home of Satavahanas
- The coins issued by the Satavahana kings Simuka, Siri Satavahana, Satakani I, Satasiri, Satakani II, Vasittiputta Pulumayi, Vasistiputra Satakarni and their governors were discovered in Kotilingala.
- These discoveries testify the fact that Telangana was the nucleus of Satavahana Empire
- As a coin with the name ‘Simukha’ was found along with the coins of gobhadra and Samagopa, it is concluded that Simukha conquered their kingdom
- That is why the upper layers at Kotilingala revealed the coins of Satavahanas. Though Satavahanas conquered the above kingdom, they left the kingdom of Maharathi dynasty at Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar districts region alone
- It is said that Simukha married a woman of Maharathi dynasty; and also his daughter-in-law was a Maharathi princess
- That might be the reason for him to not to conquer their kingdom.
- Simukha turned left to his kingdom, conquered the Asmaka and Mulaka kingdoms and made Pratishtanapura his kingdom.
- That is why, though the rule of Satavahanas began in Nizamabad region, it did not expand into today’s coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema, but expanded towards Maharashtra and Vidarbha and later on to South Karnataka
- During excavations in the area between rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra, coins of kings named
- ‘Maharathi Maha hastin’, ‘Maharathi Siva Mahahastin’ and ‘Maharathi Khadga Padihastin’ were found
- These coins contain a picture of elephant on them, some say that they belong to Maharathi dynasty and others say that they belong to Hastina dynasty
- The coins of Suryamitra (1st century BC) of Vidarbha Kingdom were over struck by the Satavahana ruler Satakarni-I.
- King Kharavela of Kalinga was a contemporary of Satakarni I and gave him considerable trouble.
- Naneghat inscription was inscribed by Naganika, the wife of Satakami -I after the death of her husband.
- It says that Satakarni conquered western Malwa, Anupa on the Narmada valley and Vidarbha.
- It also says that Satakami performed Aswamedha and Rajasuya sacri ces and proclaimed himself Samrat and assumed the , titles of ‘Dakshina Padapathi’ and ‘Apratihata chakra’.
- As the Satavahana dynasty rule strengthened in the Western Deccan, the Maha megha vahana dynasty which declared independence in the Kalinga region conquered the East Coast
- Kharavela of that dynasty was very famous as a courageous king. He conquered the East Coast up to Pandya kingdom. His descendants and later rulers of Sada dynasty ruled the Kalinga and Coastal area
- Gautamiputra Satakarni invaded the South Telangana, defeated the Sada dynasty and annexed the Andhra and Kalinga regions to the Satavahana empire
- With that, today’s coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana regions became a part of the Satavahana empire. The Satavahana era began with that.
- Gautami Putra Satakami restruck the silver coinage of Nahapana, the Saka king
- According to Ptolemy, Chashtana directly ruled Ujjain, while Paithan (Pratisthana) continued to be ruled by Siristolemaios (identified with Sri Pulumayi, son of Gautamiputra Satakarni)
- A gold coin of Hadrian (117 to 138A.D) and other roman coins found at Nagarjunakonda.
Vassals of Satavahanas
Chutus of Banavasi in North Karnataka
Abhiras in the western part of the kingdom
Pallavas of Kanchipuram
- Numismatically, the Mahatalavaras are known from several sites in Telangana such as Kotalingala, Dhulikatta, Kondapur, Sangareddy, Vardhamanakota, Devaruppala, Panigiri, Jangaon bears the horse as the main motif on their coins.
- The discovery of a Mahatalavara sealing at Peddabankuru read Mahatalavarasa Majasamikasa Siva Sebakasa, It therefore referred to a Mahatalavara named Siva Sebaka
- A coin, with the name Mahatalavara-sivakha- da, which was found in Palakonda of Warangal district informs that there was dynasty called called Talavara’
- Subordinate kings and army chiefs with the name Talavara, worked under Ikshvaku rulers who ruled after the Satavahanas
- Before the coins, with the name Talavara on them were found, it was thought that Talavara was a designation as it appeared in the inscriptions of Ikshvakus.
- But the coins found in Palakonda revealed that it was the name of dynasty.
Around 220 AD :
Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) founder of Ikshvakus and the general of Satavahanas declared his independence from Satavahanas by killing the last ruler Pulumavi III.
c.220 AD – c.278 AD : Ikshvakus (220 AD – 337 AD)
Founder : Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) : 220 – 233
Capitals : Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda).
Language : Telugu
Religion : Hinduism, Budhism
- Ikshvakus were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas and bore the title Mahatalavara.
- Ruled Nalgonda and Khammam regions in Telangana.
- In one of the Peddabankur (Karimnagar) inscriptions of Virapurushadatta, the Ikshvaku king of Vijayapuri, it was stated that his father Santamula I donated thousands of ploughs in order to promote agriculture.
- Santamula’s mother was Vashishthi, as is evident from his name.
- Virapurushadatta was the son and successor of Santamula through his wife Madhari
- He had a sister named Adavi Santisri
- He took a queen from the Saka family of Ujjainand gave his daughter in marriage to a Chutu prince.
- The Saka-Ikshvaku marriage was undoubtedly of some political significance.
- It may have checked the advance of Abhiras into Eastern Deccan.
- The last of the Iksvaku kings was overthrown by Abhiras and Pallava ruler Simhavarman I (A.D. 315-345) around c.320 AD
c.220 AD – c.340 AD : Abhiras / Abheeras
Founder : Isvarasena
Language : Sanskrit
Religion : Hinduism (Saivism)
- Abhiras were subordinate rulers of Western Satraps and declared independence after fall of Satavahanas.
- Abheeras ruled the Telangana region contemporary to Ikshvakus.
- Vakatakas occupied the regions of Maharashtra, Telangana by vanishing the Abheeras
C.340 – 500 A.D : Vakataka Dynasty
Founder : Vindhyashakti (250 AD – 270 AD)
Capitals : Vatsagulma, the present day Washim in Maharashtra.
Languages : Maharashtri Prakrit, Sanskrit
Religion : Budhism, Hinduism
- Vatsagulma branch Founder : Sarvasena (c.325 – c.355 AD) son of Pravarasena I (270 AD – 330 AD) ruled Telangana with Vatsagulma as Capital
- Emperor Harisena, his prime minister Varahadeva, the feudatory King Upendragupta of the Rishika region rules over Ajanta region until defeated by Asmakas in 477 AD.
- Harishena was the last known ruler of the Vatsagulma branch of the Vakataka dynasty.
- A princess of the then powerful ruling family of the Deccan the Vakatakas was given in marriage to Madhav Varma’s son, Vikramendra Varma (508 – 528).
- Asmakas and Vishnukundins have put an end to Vakataka rule
c.380 AD – c.611 AD : Vishnukundins
Founder : Indravarma/Maharajendrvarma (380 AD – 394 AD)
Capitals : Amrabad in Mahaboonagar and extended it to Bhuvanagiri, Ramannapeta in Nalgonda and Keesaragutta in Rangareddy. Built Indrapala in Nalgonda. Eluru, Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh
Languages : Telugu, Sanskrit
Religion : Hinduism (Vaisnavism)
- The reign of Madhav Varma-II (456-503 C.E.) was a golden age in the history of the Vishnukundins.
- It was during this period, the small Vishnukundin dynasty rose to imperial heights.
- Madhav Varma II led his arms against Ananda Gotrikas who were ruling over Guntur, Tenali and Ongole, probably enjoying subordinate position under the Pallavas of Kanchipuram.
- Madhav Varma II next turned his attention against the Vengi kingdom which was under the Salankayanas.
- The Vengi region was annexed.
- The Godavari tract became part of the Vishnukundin territory
- After these conquests the capital might have been shifted to Bezwada (Vijayawada), a more central location than Amarapura
- These extensive conquests entitle him to the title of the lord of Dakshinapatha (southern country)
- After these various conquests Madhav Varma performed many Asvamedha, Rajasuya and other Vedic sacrifices.
- The Vishnukundin reign came to an end with the conquest of the eastern Deccan by the Chalukya, Pulakeshin II.
- Pulakeshin appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as Viceroy to rule over the conquered lands.
- Eventually Vishnuvardhana declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya dynasty
- It is likely that the Chalukya Pulikesin II (610– 642 AD) defeated Madhav Varma IV on 21st October 611 AD as per the Kopparam plates of Pulikesin II.
- Madhava’s son Manchana Bhattaraka might have been expelled by the Chalukyas by the end of 624 AD.
- Hyderabad was captured by Badami Chalukyan King Pulakeshin II in 611 AD
c.450 AD – c.611 AD : Durjaya Dynasty
Founder : Rana Durjaya
- Durjaya dynasty, was a descendant of Karikala, the great Chola monarch who started as vassals to Vishnukundins.
- It is likely that Maharaja Ranadurjaya, the first ruler of this Sriramaka Syapa family , was a contemporary of Vishnukundin Madhavavarman II (456-503 A.D.) and his subordinate for some time.
- Prithvi Maharaja ruled over a vast kingdom extending from Jajpur (Vaitarani) to the river Godavari in the south.
- This King defeated Vishnukundin king Vikramendra Varma II (555-569) and declared independence.
- 611 A.D may be approximately fixed as the date of Pulakesin II‘s victory over Prithvimaharaja.
- We get a reference to the horrors of the battle evidently fought between Pulakesin II and Prithvi Maharaja on the bank of the Kunala or the Kolleru on the left bank of which stood the fortress of Pistapura
c.550 AD – 753 AD : Badami Chalukyas (543 AD – 753 AD)
Founder : Pulakeshin I
Capitals : Badami
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism
- Pulakeshin I took over some regions of Telanagana from Vishnukundins in c.550 AD and remaining by Pulikesin II in 611 A.D
- Pulakeshin II defeated Durjaya Dynasty in 611 AD and defeated Vishnukundins in 611 AD and completely by 624 AD
- The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi
- The Chalukya dynasty was established by Pulakeshin I in 543
- Pulakeshin I took Vatapi (modern Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital.
642 AD – 655 AD: Pallava King Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 AD) defeated Pulakeshin II.
753 AD : Yudhamalla I of Vemulawada Chalukyas and Rashtrakuta Dantudurga planned and carried out the overthrow of Kirtivarman II, the last Chalukya ruler of Badami
753 AD – 973 AD : Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Founder : Dantidurga Capitals : Manyakheta
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism
- The Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base
- This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753
c.750 AD to 973 AD : Vemulavada Chalukyas (vassals to Rashtrakuta Dynasty)
- Ruled Karimnagar and Nizamabad
- One of the famous Chalukya dynasties, who ruled the North-Western part of Telangana region as feudatory kings of the Rashtrakutas, were the vemulawada chalukyas
- Pulakesin-II, the Badami Chalukya king was the originator of this dynasty.
- Ten generations of this dynasty ruled the region with vemulawada of Karimnagar district as their capital.
- Their kingdom began with the Rashtrakutas and ended also with Rashtrakutas
- According to the kollipara inscription of Arikesari-I, satyasraya Ranavikrama was the founder of vemulawada chalukya dynasty.
- He ruled between 641 A.D. and 660 A.D.
- Later, his son prithvipati ruled between 660-695 A.D., artd his son Maharaju ruled between 700-725 A.D. and his son Rajaditya Pridvivikrama ruled between 725-750 AD
- But the geography of their kingdom was not known clearly
c.895 AD to 973 AD
- Kakatiyas ruled as vassals to Rashrakuta ruled with kakatipura in warangal as capital.
- Also ruled koravi or kurravadi in warangal district.
- In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital
c. 850 AD – 1200 AD :
- Mudigonda Chalukyas, ruled as vassals to Vengi Chalukyas and later Kakatiyas, most of modern-day Khammam district
- The second Chalukya dynasty which ourished during the Rashtrakuta era in Telangana was of the Mudigonda Chalukyas.
- This was a subordinate/feudatory dynasty which supported the Vengi-Chalukyas against the Rashtrakuta and later on against the Kakatiyas also in the Telugu regions in early middle ages
- Their capital was “Mudigonda” of the Khammam region
- The Khammam and Warangal regions were called as, Koravi seema and Visuruntidu during middle ages. The Eastern region of Koraviseema was called as Manchikondanadu. The Mudigonda ’chalukyas ruled this region with Mudigonda as their capital between 850 and 1200 A.D. This kingdom bordered the Vengi region from river Krishna to river Godavari
973 AD – 1150 AD : Western Chalukyas / Kalyani Chalukyas
Founder : Tailapa II
Capitals : Manyakheta,
Kalyani (Basavakalyan in Bidar , Karnataka)
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism
973 AD – 1150 AD :
- Kakatiyas, ruled as vassals to Western Chalukyas over most of the Warangal district, and parts of neighboring Karimnagar district with Anumakonda (Hanumakonda) as capital held since the rule of Beta I
1075 AD – 1165 AD : Nengonda Dynasty
- The Polavasa chiefs / Polasa(Descendents of Rashtrakuta Dynasty)
- Their reign in Telangana is described in the Banajipet, Palampet and Govindapuram inscriptions and were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas ruling parts of Karimnagar and Warangal, but revolted against their overlords.
- However, they were eventually subdued by Chalukya King Jagadekamalla II, with the support of Kakatiya King Beta II (1076 – 1108) for which he was awarded Sabbi-1000 region (modern-day Karimnagar district)
1080 AD – 1260 AD : Kanduru Cholas
- Ruled parts of Mahabubnagar (Jadcharla and Acchampet taluks) and Nalgonda (Nalgonda and Miryalguda taluks) districts with Kanduru Panugallu and Vardhamanpura as their capitals
- A branch of the Telugu Chola dynasty ruled the Nalgonda, Mahabubnagar and Khammam regions of Telangana for 250 years
- As their capital was Kandur, they came to be called as the Kandur Chola dynasty
- Not only Kandur but they also made Kolanupaka, Vardhamanapur, Kodur and Panagallu towns as their capitals, which ourished during their rule
- They belonged to the Chola dynasty who ruled the Eruva region
- As names like Danavarma and Kodur were mentioned in their inscriptions, it was the ought that they belonged to the Pothapi Chola branch
- Bhimaraja-II of Eruva Chola dynasty helped Vikramaditya-VI of Kalyani Chalukya dynasty and changed his capital to Kandur
- From then onwards, their dynasty was called as the ‘Kandur Cholas’
- Their kingdom was bigger than the kingdom of Kakatiyas, who were the subordinate rulers of Kalyani Chalukyas.
1104 AD – 1108 AD
- Paramara Jagaddeva youngest son of Udayaditya of Paramara Dynasty.
- Jagaddeva worked under the Western Chalukyas as the governor of Kollipaka-7000 province in present Adilabad district, which was located immediately west of the Kakatiya lands.
- The territory of Kollipaka was governed by Jagaddeva between 1104 and 1108.
- However, he was eventually deprived of this position by King Vikramaditya VI, after he attempted to establish an independent kingdom in the province.
- King Vikramaditya appointed his own son, Kumara Somesvara, to replace Jagaddeva as governor.
- In retaliation, Jagaddeva seems to have allied himself with the Polavasa chiefs (who were also eager to break free from Chalukya dominance), and attacked other states who remained allied with the Western Chalukyas.
- In particular, Jagaddeva launched an attack on the Kakatiyas to his east
- So long Vikramadiya VI (1076 AD – 1126 AD) lived, Prola II of Kakatiya owed allegiance
1136 AD : Prolla II (1116 – 1158) of Kaktiya
- Responsible for subduing the Telugu Cholas of Kandur who defeated King Govinda and gave his kingdom to Udayaditya.
1137 AD : Defeated Kumara Tailapa.
1149 AD : The last known Kakatiya epigraph as subordinates is Sanigaram inscription
Tailapa-III or Kuamara Tailapa was defeated by Kakatiya Prola II around 1149 AD and asserts his independence over Western Chalukyas.
c.895 AD / 1150 AD – 1323 AD : Kakatiya Dynasty
Founder : Venna
Capitals : Hanumakonda, Warangal
Languages : Telugu
Religion : Jainism, Hinduism (Saivism)
Kaktiya rule started in c.895 AD as subordinates. But, they ruled independently from 1126 AD
Kaktiya Erra (895 – 940 AD) is given the land of Kurravadi in Warangal, in repayment for the services of his father Gunda III (870 – 895 AD) by Rashtrakuta king Krishna II (878-914)
An ambitious sovereign king, Rudradeva (1158 – 1195) extends the boundaries of his kingdom:
- in the north (taking in modern day Karimnagar, and East Godavari)
- in the south (where he turns his attention to the Kandur Telugu Chola kings Bhima and Udaya Choda in Nalagonda and Mahboobnagar, sacking their cities, Vardhamana and Kandur
- in the east (the Chalukya Chola regions of king Rajaraja III)
Feudatories of Kakatiyas
- Recherla Chiefs – Elkurti Branch – Ruled areas in Warangal, Nalgonda, Rangareddy.
Recherla Rudra – Recherla Chiefs – Pillalamarri Branch – Ruled areas in Nalgonda.
Recherla Nama & Beta – Viriyala Chiefs – Ruled areas in Khammam
- Natavadi Chiefs – Ruled areas in Khammam, Nalgonda and Warangal.
- Malyala Chiefs – Ruled areas in Karimnagar, Mahabubnagar and Warangal.
- Cheraku Chiefs – Ruled areas in Mahabubnagar and Nalgonda
- Kayastha Chiefs – Ruled areas in Nalgonda.
- Gona Chiefs – Ruled areas in Nalgonda, Ruled Vardhamanapuram
- Gona Budhareddy and Gona Gannareddy are the great kings who helped Kakatiya Kings.
- The main centres of this Kingdom are Vardhamanpuram (Vaddemin of Bijinapally Mandal) and Budapuram (Bhoothpur).
- Vavilala – Ruled areas in Mahabubnagar, Ruled Amanagallu, Charikonda, Irvin and Vangur (Mahabubnagar).
Rudraya Reddy was the great king of this dynasty.
- During the period of Kakati Mahadeva who defeated by Yadava Kings, this area was under the rule of Yadava of Devagiri.
- “Sthanumantri” the Dandanayaka of Yadava King Ramachandradeva laid the inscription at Shiva Temple of Magatala (Makthal) about the rule of Yadavas in this area
1220 AD – 1750 AD : Gonds of Adilabad
Capital : Sirpur
Founder : Kolkhil
Royal Symbol : Lion
Kolkhil ( 1220 AD – 1240 AD)
Contemporary of Kakatiya Ganapatideva
- Neelkanth Shah was the last ruler of Gondwana Kingdom.
- He was captured as a prisoner by Raghoji Bhonsley who merged the Gondwana kingdom into Maratha kingdom. Maratha kingdom was defeated by British rulers and was given to Nizams.
- Thus the Gondwana Kingdom became part of Nizam state
- Malik Kafur general of Delhi Sultanate Alauddin Khilji defeated Prataprudra II and was forced to pay annual tribute to Delhi.
- It was probably at this time that the Koh-i-Noor diamond passed from Kakatiya ownership to that of Alauddin, along with 20,000 horses and 100 elephants
1310 AD – 1320 AD : Khilji Dynasty
- In 1318, Prataparudra II, the Kakatiya ruler, defied his masters in Delhi by refusing to send the annual tribute expected of him
- Prataparudra II declared independance after Qutb-ud-din the laster ruler of Khilji Dynasty was murdered by Khusro Khan in 1320
1323 : Ulug Khan son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq captured Warangal from Parataparudra II
1323 AD – 1336 AD : Tughlaq Dynasty
Musunuri Nayakas in 1336 Kapaya Nayaka took control of Warangal from Malik Maqbul.
1325 AD – 1350 AD : Musunuri Nayaks
1350 : Bahman Shah led his first campaign against Warangal and forced its ruler Kapaya Nayaka to cede to him the fortress
1350 AD – 1518 AD : Bahmani Sultanate (1347 AD – 1527 AD)
Founder : Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
Capital : Daulatabad, Gulbarga
1417 A.D :
- A Telugu inscription in Tellapur of Sangareddy district dating back to Saka year 1340, Hevalambi, Magha su. 1.0,
- Guruvara and tallied with the expired date of 28th January, 1417 A.D, engraved on a stone slab kept in between two big pillars outside the village refers to Phirojashah Sultan
- It records construction of a step-well (nadabavi) with a provision for a water-drawing device (etamu) in the Telumganapura by Nagoju and Layyaloju, descendants of Visva-karmarishi and Valla-bhoju, gift of a mango garden situated on the north of a tank by Nagoju and the presentation of a golden chain and a medal to Phiro-jashah Sultan (Surat-rana) by Layyaloju
- Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah (died 1422), also known as Firuz Shah Bahmani, was the ruler of the Bahmani Sultanate from 16 November 1397 to 22 September 1422
- Firuz Shah fought against the Vijayanagara Empire on many occasions and the rivalry between the two dynasties continued unabated throughout his reign, with victories in 1398 and 1406, but a defeat in 1419.
- One of his victories resulted in his marriage to Deva Raya‘s daughter
- Recherla chiefs of Rachakonda and Devarakonda served as vassals of Bahmanis after Musunuri Kapaaneedu was killed.
- Their descendents acquired Zamindaris (Samsthanams) in Mahboobnagar, Kurnool and Raichur Districts
- Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to the Telangana region to quell disturbances.
- Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded as the administrator of the region
1518 : Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk declared Independence
1326 AD – 1475 AD : Recherla Padmanayaka Dynasty
- Capitals: Rachakonda and Devarakonda, Founder : Singama nayaka-I
1434 AD – 1518 AD : Orissa Gajapathis
- Prataparudra Gajapati reclaimed the regions taken away by Bahamani Sultans.
- Shitab Khan who helped him in this endeavour was appointed as his Subordinate ruler of Khammam and Orugallu regions
1503 AD – 1518 AD:
Sitapati Raju (known as Shitab Khan) ruled from Rachakonda(Nalgonda), Warangal and Khammam forts.
1509 AD – 1529 AD – Vijayanagara Empire (Tuluva dynasty) – Krishna Deva Raya
1510 A.D :
In the Velicherla inscription of 1510 A.D., given by Prataparudra Gajapati, the word ‘Telangana’ was used as “Ananya Sadharana Sahasa Srirjagraha Paschattelungana Durgan”
1515 AD :
Krishna Deva Raya occupied forts of Anantagiri, Urlugonda, Chityal, Arvapalli and Nalgonda, which had been under the rule of Prataparudra Gajapati, also defeated Shitabh Khan and occupied Warangal and Khammam regions
Prataparudra Gajapati gave his daughter Takkadevi in marriage to Krishnadevaraya and was given above regions, which means the Telangana region was not under Vijayanagara Kingdom for long
1518 AD – 1687 AD : Qutbshahis / Golconda Sultanate
- In 1636, Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate
1687 AD – 1724 AD : Mughal Empire
1713 : Mir Qamaruddin Siddiqi was appointed governor by the Mughals.
1724 : Mir Qamaruddin Siddiqi was granted the control of Hyderabad by the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah after defeating the rival from Maratha Empire
1724 AD – 1948 AD : Asaf Jahis
1798 : Hyderabad became the first Indian royal state to accede to British protection under the policy of Subsidiary Alliance instituted by Arthur Wellesley
1946 – 1951 :
Aug 15, 1947 :
Indian Independence from British. Osman Ali Khan ASAF Jahi VII chose to remain independent
Sep 17, 1948 : Operation Polo, was a military operation ordered by then Indian Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel on Sep 13 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and overthrew its Nizam on Sep 17 1948, integrating Hyderabad in to India
Sep 17, 1948 – Oct 31, 1956 : Hyderabad State, India
Sep 17 1948 – Dec 31 1949 : Major General J. N. Chaudhuri who led Operation Polo stayed on as Military Governor
26 January 1950 – 31 October 1956
- Last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan ASAF Jahi VII as Rajpramukh. Rajpramukh was an administrative title in India which existed from India’s independence in 1947 until 1956.
- Rajpramukhs were the appointed governors of certain of India’s provinces and states
26 Jan, 1950 – 6 March, 1952 :
- M. K. Vellodi was Chief Minister of the state appointed by Government of India.
6 March, 1952 – 31 October 1956 :
- In the 1952 Legislative Assembly election, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State
Nov 1, 1956 – June 1, 2014 : Andhra Pradesh State, India
- In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission was appointed to recommend the reorganisation of state boundaries.
- The panel was not in favour of an immediate merger of Telangana with Andhra state, despite their common language.
- With the intervention of the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Telangana and Andhra states were merged on November 1, 1956.
- Nehru termed the merger a “matrimonial alliance having provisions for divorce”
Telangana Formation – Timeline of Events
- The region of Telangana was part of the erstwhile Hyderabad State ruled by the Nizam.
- In 1955, the States Reorganisation Committee (SRC) recommended the retention of Hyderabad as a separate state.
- This recommendation was, however, not taken.
- The people of Telangana protested that the region was more backward than the coastal regions of Andhra and also alleged that there were injustices in the distribution of budget allocation, employment opportunities and water
- On 1st November 1956, Telangana was merged with the state of Andhra Pradesh, uniting all Telugu-speaking people.
- The movement for Telangana continued in the region.
- There were ‘Jai Telangana’ and ‘Jai Andhra’ movements
- Telangana, comprising predominantly Telugu-speaking areas of erstwhile Hyderabad state, merged with the state of Andhra to form Andhra Pradesh (AP)
, 1969 and 1972
- 1969 ‘Jai Telangana’ agitation launched for a separate Telangana state
- 1972 ‘Jai Andhra’ movement launched for separate Andhra state
- There were violent agitations as well particularly in 1969 and 1972 in which many people were killed in police firing.
- After the 1969 agitation, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi gave the 6-point formula for the fast-paced development of the backward areas and for preferential treatment to local candidates for employment.
- In 1997, the BJP supported the formation of a separate state.
- 1997, Telangana issue resurfaces with BJP passing a resolution.
- A year later, the party’s Lok Sabha poll slogan is ‘One Vote, Two States’
- In 2001, K Chandrasekhara Rao formed the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) to revive the movement
- In the various elections held in the state of Andhra Pradesh, the people voted for TRS and gave a public impetus to the movement
- 2001 K Chandrasekhar Rao launches Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) for separate Telangana
- In 2009, there was a huge boost to the movement when Rao went on a hunger strike for a separate Telangana, reminding people of the hunger strike and ultimately death of Potti Sreeramulu (Born on March 16, 1901) who agitated for the state of Andhra.
- Many young people also committed suicide for the movement
- Dec 9, 2009 Then Union Home Minister, P Chidambaram, announces the Centre’s decision to initiate the process of a Telangana state
- Dec 23, 2009 Following en masse resignation of Seemandhra MPs and MLAs, Centre puts the process on hold
- Feb 3, 2010 Centre sets up five-member Srikrishna committee to look into the issue. Panel submits report in December, suggesting options
- In 2010, the Srikrishna Committee was appointed to “bring about a permanent solution” to this issue.
- The committee stated in its report that efforts must be made to bring about equitable development to the three regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh, and it recommended a united Andhra Pradesh.
- However, owing to pressure, the Union cabinet approved a bill for the bifurcation of the state
- July 30, 2013 Congress Working Committee passes resolution recommending formation of Telangana state
- Oct 3, 2013 Union Cabinet approves proposal to bifurcate AP
- Dec 5, 2013 Union Cabinet approves draft AP Reorganisation Bill, 2013.
- Bill referred to AP legislature for its views
- Jan 30, 2014 AP legislature, by voice vote, rejects the Bill
- Feb 7, 2014 Union Cabinet clears Bill; Lok Sabha passes Bill on Feb 18
- March 1, 2014 Bill receives assent of President
- June 2, 2014 The 29th state of India is born
June 2, 2014
- The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill was passed in 2014.
- Hyderabad was suggested as a common capital. It will remain so for not more than ten years after which it will be the capital of Telangana alone, and Andhra Pradesh would get a new capital.
- The new state of Telangana was formed on 2nd June 2014.
- Telangana became 29 state of India.
- On June 2, 2014, K Chandrasekhar Rao takes oath as the first chief minister of Telangana, India’s 29th state.
What are the areas to focus on each topic
- Political History of Dynasty
- Ruling types (paripalana vidhanalu)
- Revenue types
- Economic status
- Social status
- women status
- Divisions between
- Sculpture, temple constructions, Arts