Modern Indian painting

  • Oil and easel painting In India began in the starting of Which cntury in india ?
    • 18th
    • 19th
    • 20th
    • 17th
    • Ans: A
  • To propagate Western values in art education and the colonial agenda, the British established art schools in Calcutta and Madras in
    • 1854
    • 1857
    • 1863
    • 1864
    • Ans: A
  • Raja Ravi Varma exposure in the west came when he won the first prize in the Vienna Art Exhibition in
    •  1873
    •  1874
    • 1875
    • 1876
    • Ans: A
  • To propagate Western values in art education and the colonial agenda, the British established art school in Bombay in
    • 1854
    • 1857
    • 1863
    • 1864
    • Ans: B
  • Which of the below Indian painters are considered first of the modernists
    • Raja Ravi Varma (1848–1906)

Prominent Indian painters born in the 19th century are

  • Pestonjee Bomanjee (1851–1938),
  • Mahadev Vishwanath Dhurandhar (1867–1944),
  • A X Trindade (1870–1935)
  • M F Pithawalla (1872–1937)
  • Sawlaram Lakshman Haldankar (1882–1968)
  • Hemen Majumdar (1894–1948)


  • _____ is most remembered for his paintings of beautiful sari-clad women, who were portrayed as shapely and graceful.
    • Pestonjee Bomanjee (1851–1938),
    • Mahadev Vishwanath Dhurandhar (1867–1944),
    • A X Trindade (1870–1935)
    • Raja Ravi Varma (1848–1906)
    • Ans: D
  • __________ considered his work as “establishing a new civilisational identity within the terms of 19th Century India”
    • Pestonjee Bomanjee (1851–1938),
    • Mahadev Vishwanath Dhurandhar (1867–1944),
    • A X Trindade (1870–1935)
    • Raja Ravi Varma (1848–1906)
    • Ans: D
  • Which Indian Painter purchased a printing press which churned out oleograph copies of his paintings
    • Pestonjee Bomanjee (1851–1938),
    • Mahadev Vishwanath Dhurandhar (1867–1944),
    • A X Trindade (1870–1935)
    • Raja Ravi Varma (1848–1906)
    • Ans: D
  • ______ best-known painting, Bharat Mata (Mother India), depicted a young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India’s national aspirations
    • Abanindranath
  • _______considered as a pioneer of drypoint-etching in India
    • Mukul Chandra Dey
  • _______ preferred watercolor and printmaking, avoiding oil on canvas.
    • Chittaprosad Bhattacharya
  • ______book Hungry “Bengal : a tour through Midnapur District” included many sketches of the Bengal Famine drawn from life
    • Chittaprosad Bhattacharya
  • _____ of thought emphasised that “an aesthetic was also an ethos, that art’s role was more than life-enhancing, it was world-shaping
    • The Shantiniketan school


  • The idea of Contextual Modernism emerged in 1997 from ________ as a postcolonial critical tool in the understanding of an alternative modernism in the visual arts of the erstwhile colonies like India
    • R. Siva Kumar’s Santiniketan: The Making of a Contextual Modernism




  • Bombay Progressive Artists’ Group  was a group of modern artists, mainly based in Bombay, from its formation in
    • 1947.
  • Art scholars such as Vaibhav S. Adhav, C. Sivaramamurti, Anand Krishna, R . Siva Kumar[21][22] and Geeta Kapur[23] have taken Indian Art to a global platform.
  • _____ has introduced a new genre of art called Pseudorealism
    • Devajyoti Ray

Notes: Pseudorealist Art is an original art style that has been developed entirely on the Indian soil. Pseudorealism takes into account the Indian concept of abstraction and uses it to transform regular scenes of Indian life into fantastic images.


Buddhadev Mukherjee from Kolata –

  • Unusual interest in separating human form from all other things
  • He is known to incorporate the main human figure into something with animal qualities.
  • He mixes two unlike things to create one fluid painting


Roy K. John’s art

  • He uses very traditional techniques, blended with contemporary styles to creates his interpretation of Hindu deities and traditional Indian iconography.
  • He uses vibrant colors to show his love for nature and stays true to his roots by recreating some of the most traditional Indian art


Some notable Indian paintings

  • Hemen Majumdar’s “Lady with the Lamp”
  • Sudip Roy’s “Charulata Series”
  • Rabindranath Tagore’s “Self portrait”
  • Abanindranath Tagore’s Bharat Mata
  • Aman Singh Gulati’s “Almond Portraits Series”
  • Raja Ravi Varma’s Shakuntala
  • Ramkinkar Baij’s “Jakkha 0 Jakkhi” – Indian sculptor and painter – (25 May 1906 – 2 August 1980) – Bengali
  • Bikash Bhattacharjee’s “Doll-series” – (21 June 1940 – 18 December 2006) – Indian painter from Kolkata
  • Geeta Vadhera’s Jogia “Dhoop series”
  • Jahar Dasgupta’s “Confrontation”
  • MF Hussain’s “Horses-series”
  • Jamini Roy’s “Jesus”
  • John Wilkins’s “Gossip”,
  • Rakesh Vijay “Persian and Mogul styles”
  • Jainul Abedin’s “Series on Bengal Famine”
  • Sunil Das’s “Bull Series”
  • Devajyoti Ray’s “In Despair”
  • Tyeb Mehta’s “Mahisasur”
  • B. G. Sharma’s Krishna miniatures
  • ShakthiDass’s
  • Amrita-Sher-Gil
  • M. Narayan’s “Indian Ethnic” “Horses” Mother Teresa”


  • Who Founded founded “Indian Academy of Fine Art” in Calcutta and in which year
    • Hemen Majumdar, In 1919
  • Which one of the below is painiing of Tagore ?
    • Lady with the Lamp”
      Charulata Series
      Self portrait
    • Ans: C
  • Who was creator of the “Indian Society of Oriental Art” ?
    • Abanindranath Tagore
    • Geeta Vadhera
    • Devajyoti Ray
    • Ans: A
  • Who won Sikh Award’s People’s Choice Award for Contribution To Art  in 2018
    • Aman Singh Gulati
  • Which Indian Painter holds the record of  “Guinness World Record for Largest Hand Drawing” in 2019
    • Aman Singh Gulati
  • Aman Singh Gulati  holds the record of  “Guinness World Record for Largest Hand Drawing” in 2019 that belongs to which Indian Freedom Fighter drawing
    • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Which Indian Visual artist got recognition for the film “Art Finds Its Way”
    • Aman Singh Gulati
  • Which Indian Painter’s paintings were also sent to the World’s Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893 and awarded three gold medals
    • Raja Ravi Varma
  • Raja Ravi Varma Puraskaram award for the people ‘show excellence in the field of art and culture” instituted by which state ?
    • Kerala
  •  _____ was awarded the highest award of Lalit Kala Akademi and in which year
    • Bikash Bhattacharjee, In 2003
  • Doll Series in the 1960s, is artwork of
    • Bikash Bhattacharjee
  • _____ received the Bharat Nirman super achiever award in 1995
    • Geeta Vadhera
  • Who received the National Film Award for Best Experimental Film for Through the Eyes of a Painter
    • M. F. Husain
  • In 1967, M. F. Husain received the National Film Award for Best Experimental Film for
    • Through the Eyes of a Painter
  • _____ was made the first Fellow of the Lalit Kala Akademi, the highest honour in the fine arts conferred by the Lalit Kala Akademi
    • Jamini Roy, In 1955
  • ______ is known for the paintings in his Bull Series and his piece “Woman”
    • Sunil Das
  • ____ held the then record for the highest price an Indian painting has ever sold for at auction ($317,500 USD or 15 million Indian rupees) for Celebration at Christie’s in 2002
    • Tyeb Mehta
  • Tyeb Mehta held the then record for the highest price an Indian painting has ever sold for at auction ($317,500 USD or 15 million Indian rupees) for Celebration at Christie’s
    • in 2002
  • In May 2005, who’s painting Kali sold for 10 million Indian rupees (approximately equal to 230,000 US dollars) at Indian auction house Saffronart’s online auction
    • Tyeb Mehta
  • _____has been called “one of the greatest avant-garde women artists of the early 20th century”
    • Amrita Sher-Gil


Vernacular Indian Painting

  • an art alive (contemporary art), based on the past (the myths, the traditions and the religion) and made by defined groups.
  • Vernacular art is based on the collective memory of this group.


  • Which of the below are Examples of “Vernacular Indian Painting”
    • Kurumba painting
    • Pattachitra painting
    • Madhubani painting
    • Kalamkari painting
    • Ans : A

Examples of Vernacular Indian Painting:

Tribal Painting:

  • Bhil painting
    • Bhil painting is characterised by the use of multi-coloured dots as in-filling
  • Warli painting
    • Warli painting is a form of tribal art mostly created by the tribal people from the North Sahyadri Range in Maharashtra,
  • Gond painting
    • The Gond or Koitur are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group
  • Santhal painting
    • The Santal or Santhal, are a Munda ethnic group native to India
  • Saora painting
    • Saura painting is a style of wall mural paintings associated with the Saura tribals of the state of Odisha in India
  • Kurumba painting
    • Kurumbar are one of the six ancient tribal groups in Tamil Nadu.

Rural Painting:

  • Pattachitra painting
    • Patachitra artform is known for its intricate details as well as mythological narratives and folktales inscribed in it.
    • based in the eastern Indian states of Odisha,[6][7] West Bengal[8] and parts of Bangladesh.
  • Madhubani painting
    • a style of Indian and Nepalese painting, practiced in the Mithila region of India and Nepal. It was named after Madhubani District of Bihar, India which is where it is originated
  • Kalamkari painting
    • Kalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile produced in Isfahan, Iran, and in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh
  • Kolam painting
    • It is also drawn using white stone powder, chalk or chalk powder, often along with natural or synthetic color powders.
  • Kalam painting
    • painted straightway with the brush without marking with pencil to delineate the contours of the picture and the procedure of painting is popularly known as ‘Kajli Seahi
  • Mandana Paintings
    • Mandana are drawn to protect home and hearth, welcome gods into the house and as a mark of celebrations on festive occasions




  • Earliest Indian paintings were the Rock paintings
  • Indian paintings can be broadly classified as
    • murals,
    • miniatures and
    • paintings on cloth.
  • Murals are large works executed on the walls of solid structures, as in the Ajanta Caves and the Kailashnath temple.
  • Miniature paintings are executed on a very small scale for books or albums on perishable material such as paper and cloth.
    • Traces of murals, in fresco-like techniques, survive in a number of sites with Indian rock-cut architecture, going back at least 2,000 years, but the 1st and 5th-century remains at the Ajanta Caves are much the most significant
  • Paintings on cloth were often produced in a more popular context, often as Folk Art
  • Used for example by travelling reciters of epic poetry, such as the Bhopas of Rajasthan and Chitrakathi elsewhere, and bought as souvenirs of pilgrimages.
  • Very few survivals are older than about 200 years, but it is clear the traditions are much older.
  • Some regional traditions are still producing works


Rock Art and Paintings in “Bhimbetka rock shelters

  • The petroglyphs found in places like Bhimbetka rock shelters
    • A petroglyph is an image created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art
    • Bhimbetka rock shelters : an archaeological site in central India that spans the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods
      • Raisen District, Madhya Pradesh, India
      • It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that consists of seven hills and over 750 rock shelters distributed over 10 km (6.2 mi)
      • exhibits the earliest traces of human life in India and evidence of Stone Age starting at the site in Acheulian times


  • One rock, popularly referred to as “Zoo Rock”, depicts
    • elephants,
    • barasingha (swamp deer),
    • bison and
    • deer.
  • Paintings on another rock show
    • a peacock,
    • a snake,
    • a deer and
    • the sun.
  • On another rock,
    • two elephants with tusks are painted.
    • Hunting scenes with hunters carrying bows, arrows, swords, and shields also find their place in the community of these pre-historic paintings.
  • In one of the caves, a bison is shown in pursuit of a hunter while his two companions appear to stand helplessly nearby;
  • in another, some horsemen are seen, along with archers.
  • In one painting, a large wild bovine (possibly a gaur or bison) is seen


  • The paintings are classified largely in two groups,
    • one as depictions of hunters and food gatherers, (date to prehistoric times)
    • in others as fighters, riding on horses and elephant carrying metal weapons (second one dates to historic times)
  • Most of the paintings from the historic period depict battles between rulers carrying swords, spears, bows and arrows


  • In one of the desolate rock shelters, the painting of a man holding a trident-like staff and dancing has been nicknamed “Nataraj” by archaeologist V. S. Wakankar


  • It is estimated that paintings in at least 100 rock shelters might have eroded away




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