• Early Kakatiya rulers served as feudatories to Rashtrakutas and Western Chalukyas for more than two centuries
  • Ganapati Deva (r. 1199–1262)
    • significantly expanded Kakatiya lands during the 1230s and brought under Kakatiya control the Telugu-speaking lowland delta areas around the Godavari and Krishna rivers.

Who expanded Kakatiya lands  and brought under Kakatiya control the Telugu-speaking lowland delta areas around the Godavari and Krishna rivers ?

Ganapati Deva

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  • Ganapati Deva was succeeded by Rudrama Devi (r. 1262–1289) and is one of the few queens in Indian history
  • Siege of Warangal (1310)
    • In late 1309, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent his general Malik Kafur on an expedition to the Kakatiya capital Warangal
    • Malik Kafur reached Warangal in January 1310, after conquering a fort on the Kakatiya frontier and ransacking their territory
    • Location : Warangal
      Result : Delhi Sultanate victory

      • Warangal sacked
      • Weakened Kakatiya Dynasty
    • Territorial changes Delhi Sultanate annexation of Kakatiya Dynasty
    • Commanders and leaders : Prataparudra Malik Kafur
    • 1301 – Alauddin had ordered his general Ulugh Khan to prepare for a march to Warangal, but Ulugh Khan’s untimely death put an end to this plan
    • In late 1302 or in early 1303, Alauddin himself marched to Chittor, and dispatched another army to Warangal
      • Headed by Malik Juna (Senior) was the son of Ghazi Malik, and held the office of dadbek-i-hazrat.
    • Warangal campaign of 1302-1303 ended in a disaster,
    • 1303 – In 1303, a Mongol army from the Chagatai Khanate launched an invasion of the Delhi Sultanate, when two major units of the Delhi army were away from the city
    • Kakatiya army repulsed the invaders at Upparapal
    • In 1308, Malik Kafur had defeated the Yadavas, neighbours of the Kakatiyas
    • Alauddin ordered Malik Kafur to invade the Kakatiya kingdom on 31 October 1309
    • After entering the Kakatiya territory, Malik Kafur started ransacking the towns and villages on his way to Warangal.
    • he led a cavalry unit to besiege Sabar, a fort located within the Kakatiya frontier region
    • Ananir (or Ananur), a brother of the fort’s commander, was found hiding in a field.
    • He surrendered to the invaders, and was appointed as the fort’s new governor by Malik Kafur.
    • Some of the refugees from Sabar fled to Warangal
    • The Delhi army left Sabar on 14 January 1310, and on 18 January, it reached a place which Amir Khusrau calls “Kunarbal”
    • On 19 January 1310, Malik Kafur pitched his tent on the Hanamkonda hill.
    • Delhi commander Nasir-ul-mulk Siraj-ud-daula Khwaja Haji assigned his soldiers in such a way that the Warangal fort was completely surrounded.
    • Delhi commander Malik Qara Beg Maisara was dispatched to seize elephants
    • During the night of 13 February, Malik Kafur had his soldiers build tall ladders to scale the ramparts for a decisive assault.
    • The next morning, the invaders launched a determined assault on the outer fort, and captured it by 16 February.
    • Prataparudra decided to surrender.[
    • Prataparudra sent Malik Kafur a golden statue of himself with a chain round its neck to symbolize his unconditional surrende
    • According to Barani, the wealth surrendered by him to Malik Kafur included 100 elephants, 7000 horses, and many precious article
    • The 18th century chronicler Khafi Khan identified this precious stone as the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond
    • Malik Kafur started his return journey to Delhi on 20 March 1310, after conducting a review of his army. He reached Delhi on 9 June, via Devagiri, Dhar and Jhain
    • Another attack by Ulugh Khan in 1323 saw stiff resistance by the Kakatiyan army, but they were finally defeated

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In 1303, Alauddin Khilji, the emperor of the Delhi Sultanate invaded the Kakatiya territory which ended up as a disaster for the Turks.

 

Vennama, the son of Dāma, led his troops in a defeat of the Turks very probably during Ala-ud-din Khalji’s first invasion of Telangana in 1303. This success against the Turkish arms took place in the battle of Upparapalli, where Potuganti Maili is said to have put the enemies to flight.

 

Prasaditya’s son Vennama is said to have destroyed the vast Muhammadan army in battle, obviously during the reign of Prataparudra which witnessed no less than seven Mussulman invasions over Telihgapa. Potugamti Maili another Velama chief in the service of Prataparudra also claims victory over them in a battle at Upparapalli.

Venna’s son Eja DScha and his cousin Nala Dacha distinguished themselves in the Pandya war.

The earliest of the Musalman invasions over Telangana was that of Garshasp Malik alias Aia-ud-Dln in A. D. 1303 under the command of Malik Fakhr-ud-DIn JQna and Jhfiju of Kara. The object of invasion was plunder and territorial expansion. The expedition reached Telihgapa by way of Bengal. Their advance was checked by the KSkallya armies at IJpparapalli. The Velama chief Venna,son of Rechcrla Prasadityatind Potugamti Maili the two commanders of the K&katlya armies according to Velugotivari-vamSavali” destroyed the pride of the Turushkas. To avenge this disaster suffered by his army Ala-ud-Dln dis-patched a large army in A. D, 1309 with Malik Maib Klfur and
Khwaja Hajl as its commanders to conquer Teliftgatia.

After a brief halt at Devagi ri the invaders proceeded to the south and seized the fort at Sarbar on the way to Warangal. Prutaparudra
made all possible arrangements to defend the capital. According to Pratdpa-charitra the outer fort was protected by seventy
bastions each being kept under the protection of a nayaka.

The siege which began on 19lh January, A.D. 1310 continued for a period of twenty five days. The defence of the inner fort became difficult and Pratlparudra despite his preparedness had no alternative but to sue for peace at a cost of all his wealth with a further promise of sending a tribute of gold, elephants and horses annually to the Sultan. Pratfiparudra fulfilled his promise faithfully and friendly relations between him and the Sultan were maintained for a long time.

Taking advantage of this preoccupation of the king the vassals in the outlying provinces created trouble by asserting independence.

After the second Muslim invasion PratSpaiudra had to engage himself in the suppression of the revolts in the

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Etymology and names

  • The dynasty’s name derives from the word “Kakati
  • According to one theory, Kakati was originally a Jain goddess (possibly Padmavati), and later came to be regarded as a form of Durga
  • Bayyaram tank inscription from the reign of Ganapati-deva names the family’s founder as Venna
  • Venna, said to have been born in the family of Durjaya, is the earliest known Kakatiya chief.
  • Bayyaram tank inscription names his successors as Gunda I, Gunda II, and Gunda III, comparing them to the three Ramas (Parashurama, Dasharatha-Rama, and Balarama).

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The early Kakatiya rulers used the title “Reddi”(derived from “Redu,” meaning king in Telugu).

However, after they became sovereigns they were addressed as “deva” (Lord or deity) and “devi” (Lady or deity).

There appears to be a significant element of Sanskritisation in this transition.

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Relationship to the Rashtrakutas

  • 753 CE–982 CE  –

 

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Prataparudra I

  • Sastry 1158 – 1195
  • Sircar 1163-1195
  • Known as Rudradeva, Venkata, Venkataraya, Kakatiya Rudradeva
  • Son of Prola II
  • died in a battle fought against the Velanati Choda ruler Gonka II around 1157/1158
  • 1163, that the Kakatiyas declared an end to their status as feudatory chiefs of the Chalukyas
  • Mahadeva succeeded Prataparudra I as king, reigning probably from 1195 to 1199

Ganapati

  • as Ganapathi Deva and,
  • according to Sastry, reigned between 1199 and 1262
  • Sircar gives regnal dates of 1199–1260
  • expanded Kakatiya lands during the 1230s
  • launched a series of attacks outside the dynasty’s traditional Telangana region
  • brought under Kakatiya control the Telugu-speaking lowland delta areas around the Godavari and Krishna rivers.
  • The Kakatiya capital at Orugallu, established in 1195,Organised the building of a massive granite wall around the city, Orugallu complete with ramps designed for ease of access to its ramparts from within.A moat and numerous bastions were also constructed.

    Encouraged merchants to trade abroad, abolishing all taxes except for a fixed duty and supporting those who risked their lives to travel afar.

    He created the man-made Pakhal Lake.

    Pakhal Lake is a man-made lake in the Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in the Warangal district of Telangana, a state in Southern India.

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Rudrama Devi

  • 1262–1289 CE (alternative dates: 1261–1295 CE)
  • Continued the planned fortification of the capital, Warangal orgullu
  • Raising the height of Ganapati’s wall as well as adding a second earthen curtain wall 1.5 miles (2.4 km) in diameter and with an additional 150 feet (46 m)-wide moat.
  • married to Virabhadra, an Eastern Chalukyan prince of Nidadavolu

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Prataparudra II

  • The earliest biography of Rudrama Devi’s successor, Prataparudra II, is the Prataparudra Caritramu, dating from the 16th century.
  • His reign began in 1289 (alternative date: 1295) and ended with the demise of the dynasty in 1323.
  • It is described by Eaton as the “first chapter in a larger story” that saw the style of polity in the Deccan change from being regional kingdoms to transregional sultanates that survived until the arrival of the British East India Company in the 18th century.

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Decline

  •  The first foray by Allauddin khilji into the Kakatiya kingdom was made in 1303 and was a disaster due to the resistance of the Kakatiya army in the battle at Upparapalli.
  • In 1309 Alauddin sent his general, Malik Kafur, in an attempt to force Prataparudra into acceptance of a position subordinate to the sultanate at Delhi.
  • Kafur organised a month-long siege of Orugallu that ended with success in February 1310.
  • Prataparudra was forced to make various symbolic acts of obeisance designed to demonstrate his new position as a subordinate but, as was Alauddin’s plan, he was not removed as ruler of the area but rather forced thereafter to pay annual tribute to Delhi.
  • It was probably at this time that the Koh-i-Noor diamond passed from Kakatiya ownership to that of Alauddin, along with 20,000 horses and 100 elephants
  • In 1311, Prataparudra formed a part of the sultanate forces that attacked the Pandyan empire in the south,
  • he took advantage of that situation to quell some of his vassals in Nellore who had seen his reduced status as an opportunity for independence.
  • Later, though, in 1318, he failed to provide the annual tribute to Delhi, claiming that the potential for being attacked on the journey made it impossible.
  • Alauddin’s son Mubarak Shah responded by sending another of his generals, Khusrau Khan, to Orugallu with a force that bristled with technology previously unknown in the area, including trebuchet-like machines.
  • Prataparudra had to submit once more, with his obeisance on this occasion being arranged by the sultanate to include a very public display whereby he bowed towards Delhi from the ramparts of Orugallu.
  • The amount of his annual tribute was changed, becoming 100 elephants and 12,000 horses.
  • Taking advantage of a revolution in Delhi that saw the Khalji dynasty removed and Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq installed as sultan, Prataparudra again asserted his independence in 1320.
  • Tughlaq sent his son, Ulugh Khan, to defeat the defiant Kakatiya king in 1321.
  • Khan’s army was riven with internal dissension due to its containing factions from the Khalji and Tughluq camps.
  • This caused the siege on this occasion to last much longer — six months, rather than the few weeks that had previously been the case.
  • The attackers were initially repulsed and Khan’s forces retreated to regroup in Devagiri.
  • Prataparudra celebrated the apparent victory by opening up his grain stores for public feasting.
  • Khan returned in 1323 with his revitalised and reinforced army and, with few supplies left, Prataparudra was forced into submission after a five-month siege.
  • The unprepared and battle-weary army of Orugallu was finally defeated, and Orugallu was renamed as Sultanpur.
  • It seems probable, from combining various contemporary and near-contemporary accounts, that Prataparudra committed suicide near to the Narmada River while being taken as a prisoner to Delhi.

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By DWS

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