You might heard “Cyber Security” which is an important one that every Individual and Organization must aware of.

Cybercriminals are eerywhere on the internet target us and creates lots of problems.

 

What is the Main goal of Cybersecurity ?

Preventing unauthorized access, use, modification and destruction of our valuable and important information.

 

For this kind of problems everyone of finding way or solution and protecting the confidentiality, integrity and information availability.

Let’s Understand few terms inorder to Under about this concept of Cyber security

 

Confidentiality:

Protecting the sensitive information from inlawful disclosure or usage.  Make sure to the information is can accessed by only authorized individuals. One must pay special attention towards condidential and persnal information. If the information is no londer needed, and the doucments contains any onfidential or personal or inancial informaiton should always be shredded or disposed of in secured recylcing bins

Policy

It is document that outlines an organization’s commitment to and aims in terms of information security. It could also include the regulations that mist be followed in order to reach these objectives

Integrity

Protecting information from unlawful modification or alteration.

You should make sure that you never instal  a software programme withought the permisson from techinical team because those kind of information may contain virus or malware

Availability

Assuring that information is availabel and usable at all times. If you save the ifiles or information on the computer network it allows information to be receoverd if there is any computer failure or loss. Regular backups are created by network adiminstrators which may some cases enable recovery of lost or deleted files.

Internet access desinged to support normal business needs. If you use internet for viewing non-business videos or spend time on listng music can consume the system and prevent other employees from using the intenet for actual business needs

Security Measure:

It is a method of ensuring information security as well as the security of the system that store, process, or communicate it

It is also referred as safeguard

Information:

It can be defined as an asset or piece of knowledge that is important to a your business which can be written on paper, printed, saved and electronically or vocally transmitted

Now you all know the basic terms that you must of this topic.

Now let’s undersad various real-time scenarios where you can contribute to the protection of information

  • Be informed and adhere to your company’s informaton security rule and procedures
  • Consider the sensitivty iof information or business-related papers when handling them and use caution
  • Ask yourself what har could be caused if the information was lost,s tolen or disclosed to help determine if it is sensitive. More sensiive the informaion is more harm it can cause
  • Withouht prior authorization, never disable or circuvvent the security mechanisma in place
  • If ther is any loss, or theftof any sensitive information, informt to your manager

Finally one should remember that, single mistake may have negative impact on the indivdual or business reputation.

In order prevent and reduce the risks, many organizations implemented the policies and securty measures to protect the confidentialit, integrity and availailiti of our information

By following all those one can protect sensitive information agant the threast from cyer criminals and reduce the rish of human error that could result in security incident

The main goal of information security is to ensire the confiedntialt by preventing the an authorized access and integorty by preventing an authorized modification and availibitliy of information

Having password control acts as layer to ensure that our informaion securoty onejctives are met


Cyber Security Tools

Firewall

  • A cybersecurity firewall is a network security system which can either be a hardware or software that protects the trusted network from unauthorized access from external networks and external threats
  • Uses the mechanism of filtering of data by using a defined set of policies rules, that help restrict access to the applications and systems

 

  • It acts like a gatekeeper and monitors and control incoming and outgoing network traffic
  • Any specific traffic, in the form of requests for access, requests for data, to a resource behind the firewall and inside the trusted network, will be inspected, analyzed and is allowed to pass or blocked based on pre-defined security rules
  • The security rules are configured into the firewall and are customizable

 

  • As we know, the firewall is the core of security tools, and it becomes one of the most important security tools
  • Its job is to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network
  • It can be implemented as hardware, software, or a combination of both
  • The firewalls are used to prevent unauthorized internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet.
  • All messages are entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall.
  • The firewall examines each message and blocks those messages that do not meet the specified security criteria

 

  • A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and decides whether to allow or block specific traffic based on a defined set of security rules.
  • Firewalls have been a first line of defense in network security for over 25 years. They establish a barrier between secured and controlled internal networks that can be trusted and untrusted outside networks, such as the Internet.

 

  • Firewalls have been around forever. In fact, if there’s one cybersecurity tool you likely have; it’s this one.The job of a firewall is simple: prevent unauthorized access to your system.A firewall monitors network traffic and connection attempts through your network. Then, it determines whether or not to allow a packet to pass freely.Firewalls do have limitations. First of all, they cannot catch malware that entered your system because of a phishing attack.Newer firewalls, however, are more sophisticated. In addition to intrusion prevention, these new “Next-Generation Firewalls” (NGFW) offer deep packet and application-level inspection.

    Still, the migration towards cloud-based applications and integrations is pushing more firewall solutions to the cloud. For example, Barracuda has discontinued it’s NGFW in favor of a cloud-based solution.

A firewall can be hardware, software, or both.

Various Implementations of Firewalls

  • They are hardware firewalls, ranging from entry levels, mid-range to high end depending on
  • A load of simultaneous hits on the entity we are protecting
  • The expected user base
  • There are software-based firewalls
  • Some implementations work with a combination of software and a hardware firewall
  • Large organizations install high end dedicated hardware firewalls
  • Small app vendors and Individuals can setup basic software firewalls on their personal devices

Types of Firewalls

Packet filtering
A small amount of data is analyzed and distributed according to the filter’s standards.

Proxy service
Network security system that protects while filtering messages at the application layer. An early type of firewall device, a proxy firewall serves as the gateway from one network to another for a specific application. Proxy servers can provide additional functionality such as content caching and security by preventing direct connections from outside the network. However, this also may impact throughput capabilities and the applications they can support.

Stateful inspection

Now thought of as a “traditional” firewall, a stateful inspection firewall allows or blocks traffic based on state, port, and protocol. It monitors all activity from the opening of a connection until it is closed. Filtering decisions are made based on both administrator-defined rules as well as context, which refers to using information from previous connections and packets belonging to the same connection. Dynamic packet filtering that monitors active connections to determine which network packets to allow through the Firewall

Next Generation Firewall (NGFW)

  • Deep packet inspection Firewall with application-level inspection
  • Firewalls have evolved beyond simple packet filtering and stateful inspection. Most companies are deploying next-generation firewalls to block modern threats such as advanced malware and application-layer attacks.

According to Gartner, Inc.’s definition, a next-generation firewall must include:

  • Standard firewall capabilities like stateful inspection
  • Integrated intrusion prevention
  • Application awareness and control to see and block risky apps
  • Upgrade paths to include future information feeds
  • Techniques to address evolving security threats
  • While these capabilities are increasingly becoming the standard for most companies, NGFWs can do more

Threat-focused NGFW

These firewalls include all the capabilities of a traditional NGFW and also provide advanced threat detection and remediation.

With a threat-focused NGFW you can:

  • Know which assets are most at risk with complete context awareness
  • Quickly react to attacks with intelligent security automation that sets policies and hardens your defenses dynamically
  • Better detect evasive or suspicious activity with network and endpoint event correlation
  • Greatly decrease the time from detection to cleanup with retrospective security that continuously monitors for suspicious activity and behavior even after initial inspection
  • Ease administration and reduce complexity with unified policies that protect across the entire attack continuum

Unified threat management (UTM) firewall

A UTM device typically combines, in a loosely coupled way, the functions of a stateful inspection firewall with intrusion prevention and antivirus. It may also include additional services and often cloud management. UTMs focus on simplicity and ease of use.

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Expectations of a Firewall Implementation

Implementing a firewall does the following things:

  • Ensure that all traffic from the external world onto the system or application is mandatorily routed through the firewall
  • The rules defined ensure isolation and detection of all possibilities of unauthorized incoming traffic
  • Denial of unauthorized traffic
  • Passing of all authorized traffic
  • Learning and improvisation of rules
  • Identification of a right fit firewall for the expected load is imperative to ensure performance is not impacted

 

A Firewall is a necessary part of any security architecture and takes the guesswork out of host level protections and entrusts them to your network security device.

Firewalls, and especially Next Generation Firewalls, focus on blocking malware and application-layer attacks, along with an integrated intrusion prevention system (IPS), these Next Generation Firewalls can react quickly and seamlessly to detect and react to outside attacks across the whole network.

They can set policies to better defend your network and carry out quick assessments to detect invasive or suspicious activity, like malware, and shut it down.

 

Network layer or packet filters inspect packets at a relatively low level of the TCP/IP protocol stack, not allowing packets to pass through the firewall unless they match the established rule set where the source and destination of the rule set is based upon Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and ports.

Firewalls that do network layer inspection perform better than similar devices that do application layer inspection. The downside is that unwanted applications or malware can pass over allowed ports, e.g. outbound Internet traffic over web protocols HTTP and HTTPS, port 80 and 443 respectively

 

The Importance of NAT and VPN
Firewalls also perform basic network level functions such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and Virtual Private Network (VPN).

Network Address Translation hides or translates internal client or server IP addresses that may be in a “private address range”, as defined in RFC 1918 to a public IP address. Hiding the addresses of protected devices preserves the limited number of IPv4 addresses and is a defense against network reconnaissance since the IP address is hidden from the Internet.

Similarly, a virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network within a tunnel that is often encrypted where the contents of the packets are protected while traversing the Internet. This enables users to safely send and receive data across shared or public networks.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Firewall

  • Advantage is an outcome of the effectiveness of the implementation of rules and controls on the firewall
  • The firewall is effective when it can handle all possible external threats

Limitations

  • A disadvantage is that firewalls cannot prevent internal threats, virus attacks and authentic mechanisms used by hackers (like username password)
  • Organizations have to implement other mechanisms and controls to circumvent these threats.
  • Threats like, intrusion detection systems and intrusion prevention systems.
  • Attacks from the internet of virus, trojans, spyware, ransomware, denial of service, malware, can be foiled by implementing an antivirus and other prevention and detection systems alongside firewalls
  • A skilled hacker knew how to create data and programs that are believing like trusted firewalls.
  • It means that we can pass the program through the firewall without any problems.
  • Despite these limitations, firewalls are still very useful in the protection of less sophisticated malicious attacks on our system

 

Types of Firewalls

  • Any access that happens to the application inside a trusted network is broken down to multiple packets
  • To recognize the authenticity of a packet there are packet filtering firewalls.
  • These are very popular and are used to block packets from a specific source or another network.
  • Hence, when the network is attacked by unknown packets, the firewall recognizes it as a threat and raises an alarm and blocks it.
  • A firewall can work to mask or hide the internet address of the trusted private trusted network from the external public network hence unwarranted access cannot happen.
  • Application-level gateways or proxy-based firewalls are becoming the need of the hour.
  • Today the dependencies and advent of cloud-based applications have diverted focus to control applications access.
  • Hence one may want to block complete application services (like FTP, telnet, Http).
    • Eg. FTP access allows a user to copy files from one network to another.
    • By blocking FTP service it is unavailable to a malicious user who tries to connect to this network and to copy content
  • There are multiple solutions to detect and prevent malicious behavior and attacks. Because there are many ways to avoid attacks a need is felt to find integrated solutions for firewalls, antivirus, anti-spam, and intrusion detection and intrusion prevention
  • Such solutions will be the next-generation innovation in the field of Cyber Security

 

Fortigate Next Generation Firewall – This firewall boasts high threat-protection with automated visibility that stops attacks before they happen

Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) Software – Cisco is a leader in building security devices. Their firewall and security platform has more than 1 million deployments worldwide

Conclusion

  • Every commercial or application services exposed on the internet will have its own security requirements based on the functionality
  • A detailed study and feasibility analysis must be done before implementing the most appropriate of security control systems
  • To beat the world of threats and hackers, the focus has to be on implementation and then continual improvisations to meet all the possible current and future threats
  • A firewall is one of the many solutions available in today’s world cybersecurity to control these external threats.

Antivirus Software

  • Antivirus software is a program which is designed to prevent, detect, and remove viruses and other malware attacks on the individual computer, networks, and IT systems.
  • It also protects our computers and networks from the variety of threats and viruses such as Trojan horses, worms, keyloggers, browser hijackers, rootkits, spyware, botnets, adware, and ransomware.
  • Most antivirus program comes with an auto-update feature and enabling the system to check for new viruses and threats regularly
  • It provides some additional services such as scanning emails to ensure that they are free from malicious attachments and web links

 

  • Like firewalls, antivirus tools are not new. These tools alert you to a virus or malware infection on any given machine. Antivirus tools scan incoming email attachments and links for infections. If a virus is detected, it is quarantined. If malware is discovered, it is removed.Cybersecurity Tools
    Antivirus software options abound. Some of the most popular include:Avast Antivirus – Avast Antivirus is more than an antivirus. This software also acts as a firewall, web shield, anti-spam filter, and moreBitdefender Endpoint Security – Bitdefender’s popular next-gen endpoint security protection platform features a suite of tools including anti-virus, ransomware protection, and more.
  • Kaspersky’s Endpoint Security for Business Suite – Kaspersky’s suite provides next-gen protection, automatic rollback (in the event of an attack), and an easy-to-use management console.

PKI Services

  • PKI stands for Public Key Infrastructure
  • This tool supports the distribution and identification of public encryption keys
  • It enables users and computer systems to securely exchange data over the internet and verify the identity of the other party
  • We can also exchange sensitive information without PKI, but in that case, there would be no assurance of the authentication of the other party
  • People associate PKI with SSL or TLS (Transport Layer Security)
  • It is the technology which encrypts the server communication and is responsible for HTTPS and padlock that we can see in our browser address bar
  • PKI solve many numbers of cybersecurity problems and deserves a place in the organization security suite.

PKI can also be used to:

  • Enable Multi-Factor Authentication and access control
  • Create compliant, Trusted Digital Signatures.
  • Encrypt email communications and authenticate the sender’s identity.
  • Digitally sign and protect the code.
  • Build identity and trust into IoT ecosystems

You’ve probably seen the little padlock in the top of a browser bar when surfing the net. That “lock” means the connection to the server is encrypted, adding a layer of security that exists through PKI technology.

PKI technology’s public-facing browser bar is familiar to many. However, the technology also encrypts connections on internal networks.

For instance, it can enable multi-factor authentication and access control, encrypt email communication (mitigating phishing attempts), authenticate endpoints in an IoT environment, and more.


Managed Detection and Response Service (MDR)

  • Today’s cybercriminals and hackers used more advanced techniques and software to breach organization security
  • So, there is a necessity for every businesses to be used more powerful forms of defences of cybersecurity.
  • MDR is an advanced security service that provides threat hunting, threat intelligence, security monitoring, incident analysis, and incident response.
  • It is a service that arises from the need for organizations (who has a lack of resources) to be more aware of risks and improve their ability to detect and respond to threats.
  • MDR also uses Artificial Intelligence and machine learning to investigate, auto detect threats, and orchestrate response for faster result.

The managed detection and response has the following characteristics:

  • Managed detection and response is focused on threat detection, rather than compliance
  • MDR relies heavily on security event management and advanced analytics
  • While some automation is used, MDR also involves humans to monitor our network
  • MDR service providers also perform incident validation and remote response

Penetration Testing

  • Penetration testing, or pen-test, is an important way to evaluate our business’s security systems and security of an IT infrastructure by safely trying to exploit vulnerabilities.
  • These vulnerabilities exist in operating systems, services and application, improper configurations or risky end-user behavior.
  • In Penetration testing, cybersecurity professionals will use the same techniques and processes utilized by criminal hackers to check for potential threats and areas of weakness.
  • A pen test attempts the kind of attack a business might face from criminal hackers such as password cracking, code injection, and phishing
  • It involves a simulated real-world attack on a network or application
  • This tests can be performed by using manual or automated technologies to systematically evaluate servers, web applications, network devices, endpoints, wireless networks, mobile devices and other potential points of vulnerabilities.
  • Once the pen test has successfully taken place, the testers will present us with their findings threats and can help by recommending potential

Some hackers are bad. Others are helpful.

  • The helpful hackers carry out penetration testing on a company’s IT infrastructure with a variety of tools.
  • The goal of this test is to identify vulnerabilities before the bad hackers do.

You may choose to run penetration tests on:

  • Specific applications: Are the applications vulnerable to cross-site scripting? Injection flaws? Weak session management? Something else?
  • The network: Are the configuration files improperly configured? Are passwords weak?
  • IoT/Device penetration testing: Are passwords weak? Do the APIs have vulnerabilities?
  • Every cybersecurity arsenal needs penetration testing.
  • The steps followed during the process include:
    • Planning & Recon
      • During this phase, test goals are identified.
      • This includes which systems to test and how.
      • For instance, if you’re testing an application, you might decide to target a particular facet.
    • Vulnerability Analysis
      • During this phase, you aim to understand how the target application will respond to various intrusion attempts
      • You’re looking to exploit flaws in the system
      • Often, this involves using a mix of off-the-shelf tools and custom code
    • Exploitation
      • A simulated attack is carried out and access is used to steal data, change permissions, intercept traffic, etc.
      • The goal is to understand what is at risk when an attack occurs.
    • Analysis
      • After the completed exploit, the value of the compromise is determined.
      • The aim is to figure out the risk is to the organization
    • Reporting
      • After the analysis and simulated attack, a report is compiled.
      • This report details priorities for fixes and patches

 

Cybersecurity Tools

A variety of off-the-shelf and proprietary tools exist to carry out penetration tests.

Some of the more popular tools for testing include:

  • Metasploit – According to their website, Metasploit is the most used penetration testing framework.
    • It is a collaboration of an open-source community and Rapid7
    • This tool also has a large database of exploits available to test your organization

 

  • Nmap – Nmap is a free, open-source tool designed for vulnerability scanning and network discovery.
    • This tool is considered the defacto standard for port scanning and network mapping
    • Nmap sends packets to system ports, listens for responses, and then determines whether the ports are open, closed, or filtered (e.g., via a firewall)

 

  • Wireshark – Wireshark is a free and open-source packet analyzer
    • This tool analyzes and troubleshoots the network.
    • Their claim to fame is that it allows you to see what’s happening on your network at a deep level

Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM)

  • While preventative efforts such as user education and use of the tools mentioned above are helpful, they often aren’t enough.
  • A good SIEM aggregates information from every layer of the security stack.
  • This includes firewalls and system logs to identify discrepancies that may indicate a breach.
  • A managed SIEM will eliminate false positives and create a game plan for discrepancies in log data.

Your SIEM and SOC team serve as the brain of your cybersecurity operation.

They gather information from the system, parsing it, prioritizing it, and then directing action accordingly


Staff Training

  • Staff training is not a ‘cybersecurity tool’ but ultimately, having knowledgeable employees who understand the cybersecurity which is one of the strongest forms of defence against cyber-attacks.
  • Today’s many training tools available that can educate company’s staff about the best cybersecurity practices. Every business can organize these training tools to educate their employee who can understand their role in cybersecurity
  • We know that cyber-criminals continue to expand their techniques and level of sophistication to breach businesses security, it has made it essential for organizations to invest in these training tools and services
  • Failing to do this, they can leave the organization in a position where hackers would be easily targeted their security system
  • So, the expense of the investment on these training tools might put a reward for the business organization with long-term security and protection




NETWORK SECURITY

WIRESHARK

  • Formerly known as Ethereal
  • Wireshark is known to be an open multi-platform network protocol analyzer or open-source network software that can efficiently analyze network protocols and enhance security in real time
  • It helps to examine data from a live network or a capture file
  • helps organizations capture real-time data and track, manage, and analyze network traffic even with minute details
  • Wireshark will help you to browse capture data and get information about packet detail to the level you need
  • This tool can view the reconstructed view of TCP session and has a rich display filter language
  • It allows users to view the TCP session rebuilt streams
  • It helps to analyze incoming and outgoing traffic to troubleshoot network problems
  • It supports many media types and protocols
  • Despite all the positives, Wireshark has many security holes, hence you need to stay up to date and be careful while running it on hostile or untrusted networks
  • Since it is a console-based password auditing and packet sniffer tool, you can use this security software to sniff the network and monitor your network traffic in real time
  • Security professionals use this efficient software to capture data packets and inspect the features that particular data packets exhibit, which further helps to identify the weaknesses in network security

Features

  • Deep inspection of hundreds of protocols
  • Capture real-time data and offline analysis
  • It runs on multiple operating systems like Windows, Linux, macOS, etc
  • It provides color codes to each packet for quick analysis

Pros

  • Supports multiple operating systems like Windows, Linux, etc
  • Easily integrates with third-party applications

Cons

  • Steep learning curve
  • Difficult to read the encrypted network traffic

KALI LINUX

  • It is one of the most excellent penetration testing tools used by organizations to scan their IT systems and networks for vulnerabilities
  • This cybersecurity tool contains around 300 different software used for security auditing
  • Most of these tools are executable, which simply means that the users can monitor and maintain their network security systems with a single click
  • The most common characteristic of Kali Linux is that all types of users, from experienced to newbies, can use it to reinforce their security in networking
  • It does not need any specific set of expertise or degree to function
  • a penetration testing tool used to scan IT systems and network vulnerabilities. The organization can monitor and maintain its network security systems on just one platform.It offers a security auditing operating system and tools with more than 300 techniques to make sure that your sites and Linux servers stay safe.Kali Linux is used by professional penetration testers, ethical hackers, cybersecurity experts, and individuals who understand the usage and value of this software.Features
    Kali Linux comes with pre-installed tools like Nmap, Aircrack-ng, Wireshark, etc., to help with information security tasks.

    It provides multi-language support.

    It helps to generate the customized version of Kali Linux.

    Pros
    Pre-installed tools are ready to use

    Simple and user-friendly interface

    Cons
    Limited customization

    The installation process is complicated


BackTrack

  • An excellent bootable live CD Linux Distriution coming from the combination of Whax and Auditor
  • it helps to boast many Forensic and Security tools
  • These are the tools that provide a rich development environment
  • Mainly focus on user modularity which helps distribution to be easily customized by the user
  • Thus including personal scripts
  • Customized kernels
  • Additional tools
  • BackTrack is succeeded by Kali Linux

JOHN THE RIPPER

  • Professionals use John the Ripper for testing password strength
  • Another password cracker
  • Used for UNIX/Linux and Mac OS.
  • Helps to detect weak Unix passwords despite supporting hashes for many other platforms.
  • 3 versions of John the Ripper are available in the market, namely the official free version the community enhanced versions and the inexpensive pro version.
  • This tool can quickly look for complex cyphers (a secret or disguised way of writing; a code), encrypted logins, and hash-type passwords and identify weak passwords, which can be a big threat to a protected system
  • The software can efficiently work with Windows, DOS, OpenVMS systems, and Unix environments

METASPLOIT

  • Metasploit is one of the best security software that contains various tools for executing penetration testing services
  • Advanced open source platform that can develop, test and use exploit code
  • Is an outlet for exploitation research
  • it ships with numerous exploits, thus help you to write your exploit
  • Metasploitable is used to test Metasploit and another tool withought hitting live servers
  • Framework also includes an official Java-based GUI and Raphael Mudge’s Armitagen
  • All the editions have a web-based GUI
  • Professionals use this tool to attain varying security goals such as discovering vulnerabilities in the system, strengthening computer system security, weaving cyber defense strategies, and maintaining complete security assessments
  • These penetration testing tools can examine the different security systems, including web-based apps, servers, networks, and so on
  • Metasploit can instantly identify all the new security vulnerabilities as soon as they occur, thus maintaining top-notch security all the time
  • IT professionals use this tool to reach security goals such as vulnerabilities in the system, improving the computer system security, cyber defense strategies and maintaining complete security assessments.The penetration testing tools can examine various security systems, including web-based apps, servers, networks, etc.It allows the organization to perform security assessments and improve its overall network defenses and make them more responsive.
  • Features
    The tools are used to take advantage of system weaknessesThe module encoders are used to convert codes or informationMetasploit allows a clean exit from the target system. It has compromisedPros
    Good support for penetration testing

    Useful to learn and understand vulnerabilities that exist in the system

    Freely available and includes all penetration testing tools

    Cons
    Software updates are less frequent

    Steep learning curve


CAIN AND ABEL

  • It is a password auditing and packet sniffer network security tool used to discover weaknesses in Windows OS
  • IT experts rely on this software to strengthen security in networking and identify vulnerabilities in the Windows security password
  • You can use this free tool to discover password flaws and recover them accordingly
  • ‘Cain and Abel’ contains lots of functionalities such as recording VoIP communications, analyzing routing protocols, decoding scrambled passwords, cracking encrypted passwords, and so on
  • Also, this software is highly effective in cryptanalysis
  • You can consider using this security tool as a good start for all kinds of packet sniffing exercises
  • A windows only password recovery tool
  • Helps to handle a veritey of tasks
  • Helps in recovering passwords by sniffing the network
  • Helps in cracking encrypted passwords using a dictionary

Other functions

  • Revealing passwords boxes
  • Recovering cached passwords
  • decoding scrambled passwords
  • It helps in recording VIP converstions, analyzing ruting prorocols and brute-force and cryptanalysis attacks

NETCAT

  • Orginal Netcat was released by Hobbit in 1995
  • Netcat helps to read and write data across TCP and UDP network connections.
  • It is a reliable back-end tool that can easily used by other script and Programs
  • Netcat is also feature Rich network debugging and exploration tool as it creates any type of connection you require, including accepting incoming connections or port binding
  • As this tool is useful and flexible, the Nmap Project had produced Neat, which was a modern reimplementation supporting IPv6, SSL and SOCKS, connection brokering

TCPDUMP

  • TCPDUMP is one of the most efficient packet sniffer security tools used to monitor and log TCP/IP traffic connected via a network
  • Since it is a command-based tool, it can efficiently define network security and the packet contents of system traffic
  • A Network sniffer that was initially used before Wireshark and many of us continue to use it
  • It may not have a pretty GUI or a parsing logic for many applications potocols
  • but it funtions well with less security risk
  • It also requires fewer system resources.
  • Eventhough Tcpdump doesn’t receive new features frequently, it is still actively maintained to fix bugs and portability issues
  • It has received good reviews for tracking network problems and maintaining activity.
  • The seperate windows port is called windump
  • TCPdump is also the source of Winpcap/libpcap

NIKTO

  • Nikto is an open-source security software used to detect web vulnerabilities and take appropriate actions accordingly
  • The software contains a database that includes around 6400 different threats
  • Security professionals keep updating this database so that the users may easily identify the new vulnerabilities
  • Open Source (GPL) web server sccanner known to perform tests against web servers against 6400 dangerous files/CGIs, outdated versions of 1200 servers
  • Helps in checking the server configuration items like the presence of multiple index files, and HTTP server options
  • Attempts and identifies installed web servers and software
  • Scan items and plugins are updated and have an option to be updated automatically

Secure Shell (SSH)

  • SSH is a ubiquitous program used for logging into or executing commands on a remote machine
  • Helps to provide secure and encrypted  communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network
  • Thus replacing the insecure telnet/rsh/rlogin alternatives
  • Many UNIX users run the open source Open SSH server and client
  • Windows users prefer the Putty client available for mobile devices and WinSCP
  • Other Windows users prefer the terminal-based port of OpenSSH, which comes with Cygwin

Hping

  • Helps in assembling and sending custom ICMP, TCP and UDP packets and then displays any replies
  • Wad or inspired by the ping command, but it offers more control over the probes sent
  • It also consists of a traceroute mode and helps supporting IP fragemenration
  • It is mainly useful when you are trying to ping/probe/traceroute hosts behind the firewall that blocks attempts using the standard utilities
  • Hping is used while learnin about TCP/IP and experimenting with IP protocols
  • But unfortunately, Hping hasn’t been updated since 2005

Ettercap

  • A suite used for attacks in LAN
  • Ettercap features sniffing of live connections, content filtering on the fly and many other interesting tricks
  • It helps in supporting active and passive dissection of many protocols and include many features for network and host analysis

FORCEPOINT

  • Forcepoint is a customizable security tool primarily designed for cloud users
  • The tool is used to define network security, restrict users from accessing particular content, and block various intrusion attempts
  • The security admins can customize Forcepoint’s SD-Wan to monitor and detect dubious acts in a network quickly and rapidly implement appropriate action
  • The tool adds an extra level of protection for more critical threats
  • a cloud-based security solution and is used to define network security, restrict users from accessing specific content and block various attempts to hack or get your organization’s information.The IT admin can customize Forcepoint to monitor and detect any unauthorized acts in a network and can take the appropriate action required. It adds an extra level of security for critical threats.Forcepoint is majorly for the organizations working in the cloud, and it will be able to block or provide warnings about any risky cloud servers.Features
    Forcepoint helps in monitoring any unusual cloud activities.

    It provides tracking of any suspicious behavior and sends alerts to the IT admins.

    It protects and secures data.

    It helps to limit the access of your employees within the scope of your organization.

    Pros
    Good support

    Easy to set up and user-friendly interface

    Cons
    Creating reports is difficult

    Less flexibility in real-time screen monitoring


PAROS PROXY

  • Paros Proxy is a Java-based security tool that contains a variety of other tools like vulnerability scanners, traffic recorders, web spiders, etc
  • Professionals use these tools to scan security tests for identifying web vulnerabilities and maintaining network activities in real time

NMAP

  • Also known as Network Mapper
  • Free network discovery and security auditing tool
  • It used by professionals to scan single hosts as well as large networks
  • Its key features include detecting unidentified devices and identifying network issues for testing security vulnerabilities

Sysinternals

  • Helps to provide many utilities that are useful for low level windows hacking
  • Some are free of cost and include source code, while others are proprietary
  • Survey respondents were enamored with
    • PsTools: Manage (execute, suspend, detail, kill) local and remote processes
    • RootkitRevealer: Detect registry and file system API discrepancies that indicate the presence of a uer more or kernal mode root kit
    • TCP view: View TCP and UD traffick endpoints used by each process
    • Autoruns: Discover executables set to run during system login/bootup
    • Process Explorer: Look out for the files and directories open by any process
  • Many sysinternals tools originally come with the source code (even Linu versions)

W3af

  • Popular, powerful and flexible framework used to find and exploit web application vulnerabilities
  • It easy to use and extend
  • Also features various web assessments and exploitation plugins

NESSUS PROFESSIONAL

  • Nessus Professional is a highly useful network software used to define network security, rectify system security errors and improve network integrity
  • Popular and very capable vulnerability scanner developer for UNIX systems, embedded scripting language to help you write your scripts
  • The tool can easily detect vulnerabilities like incorrect patches and software bugs, and general security misconfigurations in software applications, IT devices, and operating systems and manage them appropriately

a network security software that can detect vulnerabilities like software bugs and general security problems in software applications, IT devices, and operating systems and manage them appropriately.

Users can access a variety of security plug-ins as well as develop their own and scan individual computers as well as networks.

Features

  • It provides customization of reports by vulnerability or hosts and creates a summary for the users.
  • Sends email notifications of the scan results
  • It helps meet government, regulatory, and corporate requirements
  • It scans cloud applications and prevents your organization from cybersecurity threats
  • Remote and local security checks
  • When launched it is free and open source

Pros
It offers flexibility for developing custom solutions

Nessus VA scan covers all standard network devices like endpoints, servers, network devices, etc.

Provide plug-ins for many vulnerabilities

Cons
The software slows down when you scan a large scope

Poor customer support


NEXPOSE

  • Famous for scanning vulnerabilities in networks
  • Helps in support the vulnerability managment lifecycle, including detection, discovery, verification, impact analysis, mitigation, reporting and risk classification
  • Integrates with Metasploit for vulnerability exploitation
  • Available as standalone software, virtual machine application, managed service, or private cloud deployment
  • Nexpose is one of the most convenient network security software that provides real-time characteristics for detecting vulnerabilities and reducing feasible weak points on a network
  • Nexpose further permits the users to allot a risk score to the detected vulnerabilities so that they may be prioritized as per the severity levels
  • Nexpose is a network security software that provides real-time information about vulnerabilities and reduces the threats in a network
  • In addition, Nexpose permits the users to allot a risk score to the detected vulnerabilities so that they may be prioritized as per the security levels
  • Nexpose helps IT teams to get real-time scanning of the network and detect network vulnerabilities
  • It also continuously refreshes and adapts to new threats in software and data.

Features

Nexpose provides real-time network traffic.

It provides a risk score and helps IT teams prioritize the risk as per the security levels.

It shows the IT teams different actions they can take immediately to reduce the risk.

Pros

Easy to use

In-depth scanning of network vulnerabilities.

Cons

No domain-based authentication for Linux devices

Lack of customer support


TRUECRYPT

  • TrueCrypt is one of the most widely used computer system security software used for on-the-fly encryption
  • Since it is an encryption tool, it can easily encrypt a partition or the complete storage device and build virtual encrypted disks
  • The tool permits professionals to encrypt layered content
  • This is why TrueCrypt has been one of the most popular encryption tools for several years, even without being updated

NETS TUMBLER

  • Nets tumbler is the free network software that allows IT experts to identify network vulnerabilities, detect open ports on a network, and for wardriving purposes
  • The software is designed for the Windows operating system; thus, there is no facility for source codes

AIRCRACK-NG

  • Aircrack-ng is an all-rounded network security software suitable for enhancing overall network security
  • The tool contains a comprehensive set of functionalities to analyze Wi-Fi weaknesses
  • Aircrack-ng enables users to capture data packets connected via a network for constant monitoring
  • Also, it allows capture and injection, which is vital in assessing network cards and their performance of network cards
  • Besides, IT experts can use it to test the reliability of WPA-PSK and WEP keys
  • Combination of tools for 802.11 a.b.g WEP and WPA cracking
  • Implements the best cracking algorithms to recover wireless keys once enough encrypted packets gather
  • Consists of tools like Airodump, Aireplay,Aircrack and Airdecap

KEYPASS

  • KeePass is another efficient encryption tool used for identity management
  • It enables users to explore all the linked accounts using a single password
  • Since this tool combines security with convenience, it is a cut above the other identity management software
  • KeePass permits system users to make a master password to access and attach different accounts
  • KeePass is a highly applicable software in office settings as the users can use it to discover potential risks created by human resources

Dsniff

  • A well engineered suite of tools by Dug Song.
  • It comprises of many tools like dsniff, filesnarf, Mailsnarf, msgsnarf, urlsnarft, and webspy
  • It helps monitoring networks for data like emails, passwords, files etc
  • Macof, Dnsspoof, Arps spoof help in facilitating the interception of network traffic
  • Sshmitm and webmitm help in implementing active monkey in the middle attacks against redirected SSH and HTTPS sessions by exploiting the weak bindings in ad-hoc PKI
  • This suite suffers from a lack of any updates in the last decade, but it is a great toolset for handling password sniffing needs

IDA Pro

  • Disassembly is a huge part of security research
  • it helps to dissect the Microsoft Patch to help to discover the bugs or in examining a server binary to determine why your eploit is not working
  • IDA Pro has become a standard for analyzing the hostile code and for vulnerability research
  • This is an interactive, extensible, programmable and is a multi-processor disassembler with a graphcal interface n windows and console interface on Mac OS and Linux

KISMAC

  • KisMAC is another popular network defence tool designed for wireless security running on the MAC OS X operating system
  • The software encompasses a wide range of functionalities such as brute force attacks, exploiting flaws, etc., to crack the WPA and WEP keys
  • Its features are geared towards skilled IT professionals; thus, it might not be an amicable option for newbies

KISMET

  • Console that is based on 802.11, Layer-2 sniffer, wireless network Detector and instrusion detection system
  • It helps to identify networks by passively sniffing and decloaking hidden networks if in use
  • Helps to detect network IP blocks by sniffing UDP, TCP, DHCP packets and ARP by logging traffic in Wireshark. TCPdump compatible format and plot detected networks
  • Helps to estimate ranges on downloaded maps
  • This tools is commonly used for wardriving, warflying, warskating and warwalking

BURP SUITE

  • Burp Suite is a robust computer network security software used for scanning networks, detecting critical weaknesses, and enhancing network security
  • Burp Suite comes in three versions: Enterprise, Community, and Professional
  • The “Community” is a free edition, whereas “Enterprise” and “Professional” are paid versions
  • Burp Suite is good security software for businesses but can cost dear to small businesses
  • An Integrated Platform that helps to attack web apps
  • Comprises of tools with various interfaces between them which help to facilitate and speeding up the process of attacking an app
  • All tools in the Burp suite have a common framework to handle and display HTTP messages, authentication, persistence, logging, alerting, proxies and extensibility

SPLUNK

  • Splunk is an all-rounded computer system security software used for monitoring network security
  • The tool is used for both conducting real-time network analysis and historical searches for threat data
  • This is a user-friendly tool that contains a united user interface to catch, index, and assemble data and generate alerts, reports, dashboards, and graphs in real time
  • Used for monitoring network security.
  • Provides both real-time data analysis and historical data searches.
  • A cloud-based platform that provides insights for petabyte-scale data analytics across the hybrid cloud.
  • Splunk’s search function makes application monitoring easy and user-friendly.
  • It contains a user interface to catch, index, and assemble data and generate alerts, reports, dashboards, and graphs in real-time

Features

  • Splunk attributes risk to users and systems and maps alerts to cybersecurity frameworks, and trigger alerts when the risk exceeds the threshold.
  • It helps in prioritizing alerts and accelerating investigations with built-in threat intelligence.
  • It helps to get automatic security content updates to stay updated with the emerging threats.

Pros
The indexing of data is easy

Easy to use

Cons
Steep learning curve


TOR

  • Tor is an extremely useful computer system security tool that ensures that the user is undetectable
  • It gives privacy to users while using the internet
  • This is why it is difficult to trace their information or explore their identity on the internet
  • Even if Tor is efficient in preventing cybersecurity threats, it is more useful in safeguarding information security
  • a network security tool that ensures the privacy of users while using the internet
  • It helps in preventing cybersecurity threats and is useful in safeguarding information security.
  • Tor works on the concept of onion routing, and the layers are layered one over the other similar to the onion
  • All the layers function smartly so that there is no need to reveal any IP and geographical location of the user.
  • Therefore, limiting the visibility of any sites, you are visiting
  • Tor stands for The Onion Router. It is a free and open-source software for enabling anonymous communication. It directs internet traffic through a free, worldwide, volunteer overlay network, consisting of more than six thousand relays, for concealing a user’s location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis.

Features
Tor software is available for Linux, Windows, as well as Mac

It helps to block the third-party trackers, and ads can’t follow you

It prevents third-party watching your connection from knowing what websites you visit

It aims to make all users look the same and is difficult for trackers

It is used to protect the personal privacy of its users, as well as their freedom and ability to conduct confidential communication by keeping their Internet activities unmonitored

This software aims to conceal its users’ identities and their online activity from surveillance and traffic analysis by separating identification and routing

Its application independence sets it apart from most other anonymity networks as it works at the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) stream level

Pros
It protects the online identity

Provides a high-level privacy

User-friendly interface

Cons
The system gets slower during navigation

Starting and browsing time is high


NAGIOS

  • Nagios is another widely used network monitoring tool that allows security experts to monitor hosts connected to a system and network in real time
  • The software alerts its users about any security intrusions (invasion of) occurring in a network
  • ICMP, POP3, SMTP, NNTP, and HTTP are a few of the network services that Nagios monitors efficiently
  • a network security tool that helps to monitor hosts, systems, and networks.
  • It sends alerts in real-time.
  • You can select which specific notifications you would like to receive.
  • It can track network resources like HTTP, NNTP, ICMP, POP3, and SMTP.
  • It is a free tool

Features
Nagios help to monitor IT infrastructure components, including system metrics, network protocols, application services, servers, and network infrastructure.

It sends alerts when an unauthorized network is detected and provides IT admin with notice of important events.

It provides reports which show the history of events, notifications, and alert responses for later review.

Pros
Great tool for live monitoring

User friendly

Data monitoring can be tracked easily

Cons
Limited reporting capabilities

The system slows down while monitoring the data


OSSEC

  • OSSEC is an open-source network software used to discover network problems and give real-time analytics.
  • The tool is compatible with various platforms such as Linux, Mac, Windows, VMWare ESX, BSD, and so on; hence, it is highly useful for users.

POF

  • POF is one of the most widely adopted network monitoring tools used for scanning networks and detecting the hosts of operating systems connected to a network
  • Also, you can use it to make assorted queries, name lookups, probes, and so on
  • This streamlined security software is highly useful for advanced IT professionals
  • However, newbies can experience a little hardship in learning how to use it

OpenVAS

  • A vulnerability scanner, forked from the last free version of Nessus post, which the tool went proprietary in 2005
  • OpenVAS plugins are yet written in the Nessus NASL language
  • OpenVAS has been dead for a while, but redevelopement has recently started

Scapy

  • An interactive and powerful manipulation tool, network discovery tool, network scanner, packet generator and a packet sniffer
  • You will interact with scapy while using the Python Programming Language
  • Scapy helps to provide classes to create sets or packets, manipulate them, send them over the wire
  • They sniff other packets from the wire, match anwsers and replies and perform many more functions

Pearl/Python/Ruby

  • Many canned security tools are availale here to handle comman tasks, scripting langauges allowing you to write your own when yuo need some custom features

Netstumbler

  • Windows toolthat helps to find open wireless across points
  • They also help to distribute a WinCE version for PDAs and such named Ministumbler
  • This tool is available for free for windows only
  • Uses an active approach to finding WAPs than passive sniffers like KisMAC or Kismet

OSSEC HIDS

  • Helps performing integrity checking, timebased alertng, rootkit detection active response and log analysis
  • It is known to provide IDS functionality and commonly known as an SEM/SIM  solution
  • OSSEC HIDS has a powerful log analysis engine due to which universities data centers and ISPs run OSSEC HIDS to monitor and analyze thier IDSs, firewalls, authentication logs an web servers

WebScarab

  • Webscarab helps to record the conversations that is observers and allows the operator to review them in various different ways
  • It is designed to be used for anyone who exposes the working of an HTTPs based application and decides whether to allow the security specialist to identify vulnerabilities in the application or to allow the developer to debug difficult issues

Core Impact

  • Core Impact is one of the expensive tools available in the market but it is the most powerful exploitation tool available
  • It helps to sport a large and regularly updated database of professional exploits and can perform nest tricks like being able to exploit one machine and then establishes an encrypted tunnel through the machine to reach and exploit other boxes

SQLMap

  • SQLMap is an open source penetration testing tool that helps to automate the process of detecting and exploiting SQL injective flaws and take over the backend database servers.
  • It provides features like fetching data from the database, database fingerprinting, accessing the underlying file system and execute OS commands via out of band connections
  • It is recommended to use the development release from their subversion repository

Hydra

  • Hydra is often used whn you require to brute force crack a remote authentication service
  • Helps to perform a rapid attack against more than 50 protocols like HTTP, https, smb, FTP,telnet various databases etc
  • Other similar onine crackers include Ncrack and Medusa

SNORT

  • An open-source computer network security software used for scanning networks and preventing network intrusion
  • Security experts use it to conduct network traffic analysis to discover the signs of attempted intrusions
  • The tool alerts the users about the possible signs of intrusions and prevents the same by blocking malicious traffic.
  • Besides, you can use Snort to perform protocol analysis, detect frequent attacks on a system, look for data captured from traffic, and so on
  • n open-source network security tool used to scan networks and prevent any unauthorized activity in the network. IT professionals use it to track, monitor, and analyze network traffic. It helps to discover any signs of theft, unauthorized access, etc. After detection, the tool will help send alerts to the users.Additionally, Snort is used to perform protocol analysis, detect frequent attacks on a system, look for data captured from traffic, etc.Features
    Snort provides a real-time traffic monitorIt provides protocol analysis

    It can be installed in any network environment

    Pros
    Good for monitoring network traffic

    Good for detecting any network intrusions

    Cons
    Complicated settings and configuration

    Steep learning curve

  • This suite of tools helps in network intrusion detection and prevenion during traffick analsis and packet logging on IP networks
  • Snort can detect various worms, vulnerability exploit attempts, port scans and other suspicious behaviour via protocol analysis, content searching and multiple pre-processors
  • It has flexible rule based language that describes if it should collect or pass the traffic and a modular detection engine
  • This Basic Analysis and Security Engine (BASE) is a web interface which analyses snort alerts

ACUNETIX

  • Businesses often fear that hackers may attack their computer network security via internal threat/social engineering or directly through the firewall
  • They pay less attention to security risks that lie in web-based apps like login pages, shopping carts, online forms, etc
  • This is where Acunetix can help businesses.
  • The tool enables organizations to define defences against more than 4,500 cybersecurity attacks unique to the apps and sites
  • The software repeatedly moves through the system and executes convectional hacks to test the efficiancy of your security defence.

ARGUS

  • ARGUS (Audit Record Generation and Utilization System)
  • Open-source computer network security software
  • designed for network traffic analysis
  • Professionals use Argus to conduct in-depth data analysis done over a network
  • The tool is equipped with powerful features for providing quick and comprehensive reporting

GFI LANGUARD

  • GFI LanGuard is another popular network security tool used for continuously monitoring network services, detecting network intrusions, identifying vulnerabilities, and applying patches wherever needed
  • The software provides network auditing to discover vulnerabilities in computers and mobiles linked to a network.
  • The software is compatible with various operating systems like Mac, Windows, and Linux.

SOLARWINDS SECURITY EVENT MANAGER

  • SolarWinds is a cloud-based network tool
  • Helps to improve computer security by detecting threats, monitoring security plans, and protecting the network.
  • This cybersecurity tool has an inbuilt integrity monitoring, an intuitive user interface and dashboard, and a centralization log collection, helping the users discover and respond to threats quickly

BITDEFENDER

  • Bitdefender is a cloud-based antivirus network tool that helps to keep your system safe from various cyber threats
  • The tool is equipped with new-age security techniques and technologies needed to protect one’s personal information and online privacy
  • Also, the software comes with Anti-Phishing and Anti-Theft features for complete real-time data protection, online privacy, and advanced threat defence

MALWAREBYTES

  • Malwarebytes is the top network security tool used to protect your system against malicious websites, malware, ransomware, and other online threats
  • The threats that can’t be detected through the antivirus, Malwarebytes can easily detect and block them
  • On average, this cybersecurity tool detects and blocks more than 8,000, 000 threats every day
  • Malwarebytes adds multi-layered protection to your system, making it one of the best security tools for homes and offices

VIPRE

  • VIPRE is one of the most widely used cyber security tools used to protect your home and business from malicious attacks, malware, and spam messages with no hassle
  • It helps you to stay safe against new cyber threats and crimes

AVIRA

  • Avira is one of the best security tools for network protection, scheduling the scan, and traffic filtering
  • The tool comes with multitudes of solutions like Antivirus, VPN, and System speedup
  • Hence, it offers a variety of security, privacy, and real-time protection during web browsing, video chat, voice calls, etc

Netfilter

  • Netfilter is a packet filter that implements in the standard Linux kernal, Configuration is the Primary function of this tool
  • It helps supporting packet filtering different types of network addresses and port transaltion and multiple API layers for 3rd party extensions
  • It comprises of various modules which handle protocols like FTP

GnuPG/PGP

  • Initially written by Phil Zimmerman, PGP is a famous encryption system that will help you secure your data from eavesdroppers and other risks
  • Wheras GnuPG is an open source implementation of PGP
  • FnuPG is available for free while PGP owned by symantec

 


LIFELOCK

  • LifeLock offers all-in-one protection to your devices, personal information, identity, and online privacy
  • Professionals use this tool to monitor for identity theft and threats as well as to detect, alert and block cybercrimes.

MIMECAST

  • Mimecast is a cloud-based security software used for email security and cyber resilience
  • IT experts use this tool for multiple purposes like Email security, Web security, information protection, cloud archiving, etc.

WEBROOT

  • Webroot is a cloud-based security tool that helps to protect Windows, Mac, Android, and iOS platforms from malicious cyber threats
  • The tool is highly useful for homes and businesses

Ophcrack

  • Ophcrack is a rainbow table-based cracker for windows passwords
  • It runs on windows, linux and graphically depicts relationships between people websites documents companies
  • It is a open source intelligence but open source software

Maltego

  • Maltego is a network security software used for open-source intelligence and forensics.
  • It focuses on providing a library of transforms for the discovery of data
  • A data mining applicaation also used for forensics
  • It helps in Querying Public daa sources and graphically depicts relationships between people, web sites, documents companies
  • It is an open source intelligence but not open source software

It permits creating custom entities and allows to represent any type of information.

Key Features

  • This tool analyses real-world relationships between groups, people, domains, webpages, networks, internet infrastructure, and social media affiliations
  • It extends its data reach with integrations from various data partnerships different data sources include DNS records, whois records, search engines, various APIs, Metadata, and social networking services

 

By DWS

Learn & Apply

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